Browsing by Author "Dhungel, Rita"
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ItemAnti-oppressive practice in anti-trafficking intervention in Nepal(2019) Dhungel, RitaA significant number of stakeholders are working on anti-trafficking interventions and have played a substantial role in both preventing trafficking and protecting trafficking survivors with a focus on rescue and reintegration. This article examines how various stakeholders, including Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), educators, media representatives, police officials, lawyers, and the community as a whole, have defined “successful” reintegration. The goals of this article are two-fold: (1) to explore the range of programs and services available to survivors to assist in the process of reintegration; and (2) to unpack what the construct of “successful” reintegration actually means to stakeholders, as this subjective standpoint will have an impact on the design, delivery and evaluation of the programs and services. Participatory action research was used as a tool to construct and refine knowledge around the two goals, and the article’s content is based on the research production of eight female trafficking survivors, recognized as co-researchers in this paper, who interviewed a range of stakeholders, and analyzed the resulting data by coding and categorizing. The findings of the study, together with implications for social work practice, will be discussed in this article. ItemCommunity based mentors and journey guides: a transformative learning approach to social work education(2019) Lorenzetti, Liza; Halvorsen, Jeffery; Dhungel, Rita; Lorenzetti, Diane; Oshchepkova, Tatiana; Haile, Lemlem; Biscette, KrishmaCritical pedagogy is congruent with the social work discipline, which is engaged, people-focused, and centers on social justice, liberation and human rights. While there is growing recognition of the importance of better preparing social work students to engage in critical, anti-oppressive practice, students have limited opportunities for transformative learning experiences within community settings, outside of official practicums. Masters of Social Work students pursuing a specialization in international and community development (ICD) at a Canadian university were matched with community Journey Guides who provided mentorship and opportunities for students to become involved in community-based social justice initiatives. This article presents the eight-step experiential framework that was used as a pedagogical tool to support student learning, and the results from the program’s evaluation with the first student cohort. Using surveys and focus groups, the study found the guiding relationship was characterized by acceptance, friendliness, encouragement, and motivation. Students engaged in critical dialogues with Guides, gained community development experience and skills and enhanced their social justice knowledge. ItemCommunity-led transformative research tools and applications: From Canada to Nepal(2020) Lorenzetti, Liza; Dhungel, RitaThe deepening neoliberal agenda in our global context shines a light on historical and enduring inequities of colonial and class patriarchy. While praxis is a central feature of PAR, further attention to community-led actions is urgently needed to demonstrate the connection between method, application and social transformation. Focusing on two contexts, Canada and Nepal, we highlight examples of transformative community-led research tools through the lens of social work activism. By authenticating our theories of knowledge, we enter a critical discussion on the use of media conferences and street actions as designed and differentially employed in each study. We conclude with the limitations and transformative potential of PAR. ItemHearing our voices: pathways from oppression to liberation through community-based participatory research(2019) Dhungel, Rita; Lama, Shanti; Khadka, Auska; KC, Sharda; Sherpa, Mendo; Limbu, Pratima; Limbu, Ghaynu; Rai, Monika; Shrestha, SweataA number ofqualitative-based participatory approaches have been used to analyse and address structural inequalities and intersectional gender oppression. Thishas been broadly evident in the academic environment and, particularly, in social work education and practice. However, more participatory aspects of social justice research, such as inviting and supporting disenfranchised and vulnerable populations to become more intimately involved in identifying their issues, together with developing remedial strategies and acting upon them, are still generally marginal, leaving both researchers and practitioners travelling on the uneven ground. In an attempt to level these troughs in social work education (and, by extension, practice), the paper will explore the transformative outcomes associated with participatory action research conducted as emancipatory and liberatory tools in research undertaken in collaboration with trafficking survivors in Nepal. The purpose of this paper is to explore the collective experiences of growing critical consciousness around social injustice and structural inequalities that contributed to survivors being “doubly victimised”. Hence, in this paper, their resiliency in the face of that victimisationis not discussed. The goal of the paper isthree-fold: (1) share the study process/approaches that supported an increase in the survivors’ critical thinking about their own oppression; (2) consider the impact of survivors’ solidarity in social and political action; and (3) examine the applicability of an emerging model of survivors’ liberatory practice.Overall, this paper will explore new and potentially liberatory ways to address the multiple and complex issues facing survivors upon return, and promote transformative praxis to support healthy individual and collective development. ItemMigrant smuggling in Canada possible - lessons for beyond borders(2019) Winterdyk, John; Dhungel, RitaEven though migration has been seen as an expression of people’s willingness to overcome adversity to find and live a better life within the complex socio-political and diverse world of today, it has become a problematic phenomenon in Canada, and elsewhere. Aside from definitional challenges, the illegal move-ment of people presents a wide range concerns for States (e.g., accommodating the numbers, migrant integration, socio-cultural barriers, etc.). Defining and responding to ‘irregular migration’ is fraught with a number of challenges but recent cases in Can-ada provide possible options to ensure the safety and security of illegal migration movements not only in Canada but potentially internationally. An intervention and prevention model based on engagement, empathy, and empowerment (i.e. 3E’s) is discussed. ItemResiliency and empowerment of the HIV community in Nepal during Covid-19: equity and gender-based lenses(2020) Dhungel, RitaThis paper examines the voices and experiences of one of the marginalised communities, Women Living with HIV (WLWH) in Nepal at the intersections of COVID-19 and structural inequality and injustice. The overarching goal of this paper is to identify impact and implications of COVID-19 on the HIV community with a focus on factors that further escalate their vulnerability to socio-economic marginalisation and mental and psychological challenges. This study was guided by Interpretative Phenomenology Analysis (IPA). For the purpose of this study two focus groups and semi structured interviews were virtually conducted with 11 Women Living with HIV (WLWH) in Kathmandu, Nepal, using a qualitative paradigm. The Psychosocial Pyramid was used to analyse the data, and through thematic analysis the data was coded and categorised from equity and human rights lenses. This community-based study uncovered that the WLWH experience of COVID-19 was further compounded by gender oppression. At a national level, the Government of Nepal imposed a lockdown as an appropriate measure to limit the spread of COVID-19, but this response failed to adequately meet the needs of marginalized populations, especially WLWH, due to a number of restrictions of the lockdown. The emergency relief program, mainly food hamper, was introduced as part of the lockdown response that did not even maintain the privacy of WLWH. It is imperative for the Government to acknowledge the challenges and vulnerability that WLWH experience from COVID-19, which are discussed in the results section, and develop integrative approaches, programs and policies in addressing these issues in the second wave of COVID and post-COVID-19. ItemA transformative approach to social work education(2017) Dhungel, Rita; Lorenzetti, Liza; Lorenzetti, Diane; Oshchepkova, Tatiana; Haile, LemlemThe paper presents an overview of “The Journey Guides Program” - a mentorship and experiential learning framework developed by the Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary in Canada. This program was implemented in an Advanced Graduate Seminar, a preparatory course for graduate Social Work students prior to entering their field placements. The purpose of this program is to advance practice-based knowledge in transformative learning. This article begins by discussing critical pedagogy, the theoretical framework that underpinned “The Journey Guides Program”, followed by a description of the eight-step process the authors adopted to implement this program. This paper concludes by presenting our evaluation plan and subsequent steps. ItemTransformative impacts: trafficking survivors for sexual exploitation and their involvement in an emancipatory study in Nepal(2016) Dhungel, RitaTrafficking of girls and women for sexual exploitations and their reintegration have become serious social issues in the world, particularly in Nepal, drawing the attention of local and international communities, including United Nations, government, academia, practitioners and activists. Nevertheless, the paucity of research on reintegration of trafficking survivors in the Nepalese context exhibits the need for further research. For example, in previous studies, the experiences of trafficking survivors in their reintegration have been examined and some strategies have been proposed through a qualitative approach. However, no studies have been conducted from social justice and feminist paradigms, and therefore the study was designed to bridge the gaps identified in academic investigations. Through the use of Participatory Action Research (PAR), the purpose for this study is to promote transformational/experiential learning opportunities to trafficking survivors and measure its transformative change. By using a number of PAR tools, eight trafficking survivors as co-researchers have examined under researched experiences of survivors on transformational learning opportunities and its implications to transformative impacts. For the purpose of the study, the survivors were significantly involved in analyzing data, mainly in categorizing and coding, however, a praxis (action-reflection-action) encouraging participants to engage in meaningful dialogues and actions, was executed as emancipatory research and liberatory educational tools throughout the study period. The results demonstrate that personal and social transformations were achieved, grounded in experiential evidence in personal narratives. Implications of the study are discussed in the conclusion. ItemUnpacking human trafficking from neoliberalism and neo-conservatism paradigms in Nepal: A critical review(2021) Dhungel, RitaThis theoretical review paper examines the trafficking of women and children in Nepal caused by oppression and socio-economic marginalization and unpacks human trafficking from neoliberal and neoconservative paradigms. It does not discuss human smuggling but instead provides a critical examination of the forces contributing to human trafficking in Nepal according to the neoliberal and neoconservative paradigms. It begins with a brief overview of human trafficking in Nepal and then explores the international frameworks related to human trafficking. It then briefly examines the “4 P” strategy – prevention, protection, prosecution and partnerships – related to anti-human trafficking efforts and identifies gaps in practice/policies. It concludes with a critical discussion of the implications for social work. The paper also stresses that anti-trafficking intervention programs and approaches must be accountable and responsive to the aspirations, strengths, wisdom and experiences of the specific community and be sensitive to the external and internal forces contributing to the trafficking they seek counter. It claims that there is a need for participatory action research that invites trafficking survivors to engage in critical dialogue and conversation and help develop integrative strategies to address human trafficking in Nepal. To write this paper, the author critically reviewed secondary data, including qualitative and quantitative studies and NGO publications, but does not claim to provide a comprehensive or systematic analysis of evidence. ItemVoices of international students: growth, strengths, and challenges at MacEwan University(2020) Samad, Fatima; Dhungel, RitaThis study aims to explore and gain a better understanding of the experiences of international students at MacEwan University of Edmonton using both qualitative and quantitative approaches through surveys and focus groups. This study will gain more insight into the different barriers faced by international students on both micro and macro levels, their experiences integrating themselves into a new culture, and details on their employment situations, financial situations, sense of well-being, and rationale in choosing MacEwan University of Edmonton. This study will also touch on what more MacEwan University can do to enhance this experience, both academically and personally for international students based on participant feedback.