Browsing by Author "Funk, W. Chris"
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- ItemGlobal genetic diversity status and trends:towards a suite of Essential BiodiversityVariables (EBVs) for genetic composition(2022) Hoban, Sean; Archer, Frederick I.; Bertola, Laura D.; Bragg, Jason G.; Breed, Martin F.; Bruford, Michael W.; Coleman, Melinda A.; Ekblom, Robert; Funk, W. Chris; Grueber, Catherine E.; Hand, Brian K.; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Jensen, Evelyn L.; Johnson, Jeremy S.; Kershaw, Francine; Liggins, Libby; MacDonald, Anna J.; Mergeay, Joachim; Miller, Joshua M.; Muller-Karger, Frank; O'Brien, David; Paz-Vinas, Ivan; Potter, Kevin M.; Razgour, Orly; Vernesi, Cristiano; Hunter, Margaret E.Biodiversity underlies ecosystem resilience, ecosystem function, sustainable economies, and human well-being. Understanding how biodiversity sustains ecosystems under anthropogenic stressors and global environmental change will require new ways of deriving and applying biodiversity data. A major challenge is that biodiversity data and knowledge are scattered, biased, collected with numerous methods, and stored in inconsistent ways. The Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) has developed the Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) as fundamental metrics to help aggregate, harmonize, and interpret biodiversity observation data from diverse sources. Mapping and analyzing EBVs can help to evaluate how aspects of biodiversity are distributed geographically and how they change over time. EBVs are also intended to serve as inputs and validation to forecast the status and trends of biodiversity, and to support policy and decision making. Here, we assess the feasibility of implementing Genetic Composition EBVs (Genetic EBVs), which are metrics of within-species genetic variation. We review and bring together numerous areas of the field of genetics and evaluate how each contributes to global and regional genetic biodiversity monitoring with respect to theory, sampling logistics, metadata, archiving, data aggregation, modeling, and technological advances. We propose four Genetic EBVs: (i) Genetic Diversity; (ii) Genetic Differentiation; (iii) Inbreeding; and (iv)Effective Population Size (Ne). We rank Genetic EBVs according to their relevance, sensitivity to change, generalizability, scalability, feasibility and data availability. We outline the workflow for generating genetic data underlying the GeneticEBVs and review advances and needs in archiving genetic composition data and metadata. We discuss how GeneticEBVs can be operationalized by visualizing EBVs in space and time across species and by forecasting Genetic EBVsbeyond current observations using various modeling approaches. Our review then explores challenges of aggregation, standardization, and costs of operationalizing the Genetic EBVs, as well as future directions and opportunities to maximize their uptake globally in research and policy. The collection, annotation, and availability of genetic data has made major advances in the past decade, each of which contributes to the practical and standardized framework for large-scale genetic observation reporting. Rapid advances in DNA sequencing technology present new opportunities, but also challenges for operationalizing Genetic EBVs for biodiversity monitoring regionally and globally. With these advances, genetic composition monitoring is starting to be integrated into global conservation policy, which can help support the foundation of all biodiversity and species’ long-term persistence in the face of environmental change. We conclude with a summary of concrete steps for researchers and policymakers for advancing operationalization of Genetic EBVs. The technical and analytical foundations of Genetic EBVs are well developed, and conservation practitioners should anticipate their increasing application as efforts emerge to scale up genetic biodiversity monitoring regionally and globally.
- ItemThe crucial role of genome-wide genetic variation in conservation(2021) Kardos, Marty; Armstrong, Ellie E.; Fitzpatrick, Sarah; Hauser, Samantha; Hedrick, Philip W.; Miller, Joshua M.; Tallmon, David A.; Funk, W. ChrisThe unprecedented rate of extinction calls for efficient use of genetics to help conserve biodiversity. Several recent genomic and simulation-based studies have argued that the field of conservation biology has placed too much focus on conserving genome-wide genetic variation, and that the field should instead focus on managing the subset of functional genetic variation that is thought to affect fitness. Here, we critically evaluate the feasibility and likely benefits of this approach in conservation. We find that population genetics theory and empirical results show that conserving genome-wide genetic variation is generally the best approach to prevent inbreeding depression and loss of adaptive potential from driving populations towards extinction. Focusing conservation efforts on presumably functional genetic variation will only be feasible occasionally, often misleading, and counterproductive when prioritized over genome-wide genetic variation. Given the increasing rate of habitat loss and other environmental changes, failure to recognize the detrimental effects of lost genome-wide genetic variation on long-term population viability will only worsen the biodiversity crisis.