Browsing by Author "Goodale, Melvyn"
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ItemAffective blindsight in the absence of input from face processing regions in occipital-temporal cortex(2017) Striemer, Christopher; Whitwell, Robert L.; Goodale, MelvynPrevious research suggests that the implicit recognition of emotional expressions may be carried out by pathways that bypass primary visual cortex (V1) and project to the amygdala. Some of the strongest evidence supporting this claim comes from case studies of “affective blindsight” in which patients with V1 damage can correctly guess whether an unseen face was depicting a fearful or happy expression. In the current study, we report a new case of affective blindsight in patient MC who is cortically blind following extensive bilateral lesions to V1, as well as face and object processing regions in her ventral visual stream. Despite her large lesions, MC has preserved motion perception which is related to sparing of the motion sensitive region MT+ in both hemispheres. ItemCan intention override the “automatic pilot”?(2010) Striemer, Christopher; Yukovsky, Julia; Goodale, MelvynPrevious research has suggested that the visuomotor system possesses an “automatic pilot” which allows people to make rapid online movement corrections in response to sudden changes in target position. Importantly, the automatic pilot has been shown to operate in the absence of visual awareness, and even under circumstances in which people are explicitly asked not to correct their ongoing movement. In the current study, we investigated the extent to which the automatic pilot could be “disengaged” by explicitly instructing participants to ignore the target jump (i.e., “NO-GO”), by manipulating the order in which the two tasks were completed (i.e., either “GO” or NO-GO first), and by manipulating the proportion of trials in which the target jumped. The results indicated that participants made fewer corrections in response to the target jump when they were asked not to correct their movement (i.e. NO-GO), and when they completed the NO-GO task prior to the task in which they were asked to correct their movement when the target jumped (i.e., the GO task). However, increasing the proportion of jumping targets had only a minimal influence on performance. Critically, participants still made a significant number of unintended corrections (i.e., errors) in the NO-GO tasks, even under explicit instructions not to correct their movement if the target jumped. Overall these data suggest that, while the automatic pilot can be influenced to some degree by top-down strategies and previous experience, the pre-potent response to correct an ongoing movement cannot be completely disengaged. ItemOverlapping neural circuits for visual attention and eye movements in the human cerebellum(2015) Striemer, Christopher; Chouinard, Philippe; Goodale, Melvyn; De Ribaupierre, SandrinePrevious research in patients with cerebellar damage suggests that the cerebellum plays a role in covert visual attention. One limitation of some of these studies is that they examined patients with heterogeneous cerebellar damage. As a result, the patterns of reported deficits have been inconsistent. In the current study, we used functional neuroimaging (fMRI) in healthy adults (N=14) to examine whether or not the cerebellum plays a role in covert visual attention. Participants performed two covert attention tasks in which they were cued exogenously (with peripheral flashes) or endogenously (using directional arrows) to attend to marked locations in the visual periphery without moving their eyes. We compared BOLD activation in these covert attention conditions to a number of control conditions including: the same attention tasks with eye movements, a target detection task with no cueing, and a self-paced button-press task. Subtracting these control conditions from the covert attention conditions allowed us to effectively remove the contribution of the cerebellum to motor output. In addition to the usual fronto-parietal networks commonly engaged by these attention tasks, lobule VI of the vermis in the cerebellum was also activated when participants performed the covert attention tasks with or without eye movements. Interestingly, this effect was larger for exogenous compared to endogenous cueing. These results, in concert with recent patient studies, provide independent yet converging evidence that the same cerebellar structures that are involved in eye movements are also involved in visuospatial attention. ItemPrograms for action in superior parietal cortex: a triple‐pulse TMS investigation(2011) Striemer, Christopher; Chouinard, Philippe; Goodale, MelvynConverging evidence from neurological patients and functional brain imaging studies strongly supports the notion that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), especially in the left hemisphere, plays a critical role in both the programming (i.e., setting the initial movement parameters of the reach) and the online control of goal-directed reaching movements. Importantly, however, there is no clear consensus on how different subregions within the PPC contribute to the programming and online control of reaching. In the current study, we investigated the role of the inferior (IPL) and superior (SPL) parietal lobules in reach programming using MRI-guided event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Specifically, we applied triple-pulse (tp) TMS to either the left IPL or the left SPL at different time points during reaching movements either at target onset (programming) or at movement onset (online control) while participants (n=16) made pointing movements to targets in the periphery without visual feedback of the moving hand. Stimulating the SPL but not the IPL resulted in a significant increase in endpoint errors when tp-TMS was applied during the programming phase compared to the online control phase. In short, these data demonstrate that the SPL plays a critical role in real-time movement programming. Item‘‘Real-time’’ obstacle avoidance in the absence of primary visual cortex(2009) Striemer, Christopher; Chapman, Craig; Goodale, MelvynWhen we reach toward objects, we easily avoid potential obstacles located in the workspace. Previous studies suggest that obstacle avoidance relies on mechanisms in the dorsal visual stream in the posterior parietal cortex. One fundamental question that remains unanswered is where the visual inputs to these dorsal-stream mechanisms are coming from. Here, we provide compelling evidence that these mechanisms can operate in ‘‘real-time’’ without direct input from primary visual cortex (V1). In our first experiment, we used a reaching task to demonstrate that an individual with a dense left visual field hemianopia after damage to V1 remained strikingly sensitive to the position of unseen static obstacles placed in his blind field. Importantly, in a second experiment, we showed that his sensitivity to the same obstacles in his blind field was abolished when a short 2-s delay (without vision) was introduced before reach onset. These findings have far-reaching implications, not only for our understanding of the time constraints under which different visual pathways operate, but also in relation to how these seemingly ‘‘primitive’’ subcortical visual pathways can control complex everyday behavior without recourse to conscious vision. ItemThe role of non-conscious visual processing in obstacle avoidance: a commentary on Ross et al. (2018)(2018) Striemer, Christopher; Chapman, Craig; Goodale, MelvynWhen summed together Ross et al.'s (2018) data and conclusions appear not only to be a clear failure to replicate, but call into question the validity of our original result by labelling it a “chance finding”. Typically, bold statements such as these need to be backed up by firm conclusive data. In the following commentary, we provide a critical analysis of Ross et al.'s (2018) findings.