Browsing by Author "Roberts, Paul M."
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- ItemAsymmetric synthesis of the cis- and trans-stereoisomers of 4-aminopyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid and 4-aminotetrahydrofuran-3-carboxylic acid(2004) Bunnage, Mark E.; Davies, Stephen G.; Roberts, Paul M.; Smith, Andrew D.; Withey, Jonathan M.The diastereoselective conjugate addition of lithium (S)-N-benzyl-N-alpha-methylbenzylamide has been successfully applied to the first asymmetric syntheses of cis-(3S,4R)- and trans-(3R,4R)-4-aminotetrahydrofuran-3-carboxylic acids (26% and 25% overall yield respectively, > 98% d.e. and > 97% e. e. in each case). Furthermore, the most efficient asymmetric synthesis to date of cis-( 3R, 4R)- and trans-( 3R, 4S)-4-aminopyrrolidine carboxylic acids is delineated: for cis-( 3R, 4R), four steps, > 98% d.e., 52% overall yield; for trans-( 3R, 4S), five steps, > 98% d.e., 50% overall yield.
- ItemKinetic resolution and parallel kinetic resolution of methyl (±)-5-alkyl-cyclopentene-1-carboxylates for the asymmetric synthesis of 5-alkyl-cispentacin derivatives(2005) Davies, Stephen G.; Garner, A. Christopher; Long, Marcus J. C.; Morrison, Rachel M.; Roberts, Paul M.; Savory, Edward D.; Smith, Andrew D.; Sweet, Miles J.; Withey, Jonathan M.Conjugate addition of lithium dibenzylamide to methyl 5-isopropyl, 5-phenyl- and 5-tert-butyl-cyclopentene-1-carboxylates occurs with high levels of substrate control (>88% de), with preferential addition to the face of the cyclic α,β-unsaturated acceptor anti- to the stereodirecting 5-alkyl substituent. Treatment of a range of methyl (±)-5-alkyl-cyclopentene-1-carboxylates with both lithium (±)-N-benzyl-N-α-methylbenzylamide and lithium (±)-N-3,4-dimethoxybenzyl-N-α-methylbenzylamide indicates significant enantiorecognition in their mutual kinetic resolutions, with preferential addition anti- to the 5-alkyl substituent, giving the 1,2-syn-1,5-anti-arrangement (E >16) after enolate protonation anti- to the amino functionality. The kinetic resolution of a range of methyl (±)-5-alkyl-cyclopentene-1-carboxylates with lithium (S)-N-benzyl-N-α-methylbenzylamide, and their efficient parallel kinetic resolution with a pseudoenantiomeric mixture of lithium (S)-N-benzyl-N-α-methylbenzylamide and lithium (R)-N-3,4-dimethoxybenzyl-N-α-methylbenzylamide are also demonstrated, giving a range of 5-alkyl-cispentacin derivatives in >98% de and high ee after N-deprotection.
- ItemKinetic resolution of tert-butyl (RS)-3-alkylcyclopentene-1-carboxylates for the synthesis of homochiral 3-alkyl-cispentacin and 3-alkyl-transpentacin derivatives(2004) Bunnage, Mark E.; Davies, Stephen G.; Parkin, Richard M.; Roberts, Paul M.; Smith, Andrew D.; Withey, Jonathan M.High levels of stereocontrol are observed in the conjugate addition of lithium dibenzylamide to tert-butyl (RS)-3-alkylcyclopentene-1-carboxylates (alkyl = Et, Bn), with addition occurring exclusively anti- to the 3-alkyl substituent. Treatment of a range of tert-butyl (RS)-3-alkylcyclopentene-1-carboxylates (alkyl = Et, Bn, Pr-i, Bu-t) with lithium (RS)-N-benzyl-N-alpha-methylbenzylamide indicates that good enantiorecognition is observed (E > 80) in their mutual kinetic resolution. In these reactions, conjugate addition of the lithium amide occurs exclusively anti- to the 3-alkyl substituent, with subsequent C(1)-protonation occurring preferably anti- to the 2-amino group in the 3-Et, 3-Bn and 3-Pr-i cases, giving predominantly the corresponding 1,2-syn-2,3-anti-diastereoisomers. Conjugate addition to (RS)-3-tert-butyl cyclopentene-1-carboxylate results in exclusive 2,3-anti-addition and a reversal in C(1)-protonation selectivity, giving predominantly the 1,2-anti-2,3-anti-diastereoisomer. Furthermore, the kinetic resolution of the tert-butyl (RS)-3-alkylcyclopentene-1-carboxylates (alkyl = Et, Bn, Pr-i, Bu-t) with lithium (S)-N-benzyl-N-alpha-methylbenzylamide proceeds efficiently, giving, at between 47 and 51% conversion, the resolved 3-alkylcyclopentene-1-carboxylates in > 85 to > 98% ee and the beta-amino ester products of conjugate addition in high de, consistent with E > 80 in each case. Subsequent deprotection of the 1,2-syn-2,3-anti-3-alkyl-beta-amino esters ( alkyl = Et, Bn, Pr-i) by hydrogenolysis and ester hydrolysis gives the corresponding 1,2-syn-2,3-anti-3-alkylcispentacins in > 98% de and 98 +/- 1% ee. Selective epimerisation of the 1,2-syn-2,3-anti-3-alkyl-beta-amino esters (alkyl = Et, Bn, Pr-i, Bu-t) by treatment with (KOBu)-Bu-t in (BuOH)-Bu-t gives the corresponding 1,2-anti-2,3-anti-3-alkyl-beta-amino esters in quantitative yield and in > 98% de, with subsequent deprotection by hydrogenolysis and ester hydrolysis giving the corresponding 1,2-anti-2,3-anti-3-alkylcispentacin hydrochlorides in > 98% de.
- ItemStrategies for the construction of morphinan alkaloid AB-rings: Regioselective Friedel-Crafts-type cyclisations of γ-aryl-β-benzoylamido acids with asymmetrically substituted γ-aryl rings(2016) Davies, Stephen G.; Goddard, Euan C.; Roberts, Paul M.; Russell, Angela J.; Smith, Andrew D.; Thomson, James E.; Withey, Jonathan M.The regioselectivity of the Friedel-Crafts-type cyclisation of a range of -aryl--benzoylamido acids, bearing oxy substituents at the C(3)- and C(4)-positions of the -aryl ring, has been investigated. In all of the cases examined (with 3,4-dimethoxy, 3,4-methylenedioxy and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy substituents) the Lewis acid promoted cyclisation proceeds with exclusive regioselectivity for attack at the C(6)-position rather than at the C(2)-position, and furnishes the corresponding, N- and O-protected 3-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1-tetralone derivatives. This inherent regioselectivity can be overturned by the regioselective introduction of chlorine as a blocking group for the C(6)-position; subsequent Lewis acid promoted cyclisation then proceeds with exclusive regioselectivity for attack at the C(2)-position to deliver the corresponding N- and O-protected 3- amino-5-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone derivative. These complementary cyclisation protocols represent useful methods for the preparation of these benzo-fused carbocyclic ring systems, which are the functionalised AB-rings of a range of morphinan alkaloids.