Browsing by Author "Valdez, Lidio M."
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- ItemA bird bone necklace from Amato, Acari Valley, Peru(2005) Valdez, Lidio M.This paper reports the recent discovery of a bird bone necklace from Amato, an Early Intermediate Period site located in the Acari Valley of Peru. The necklace was found in association with an approximately 60 year-old adult male, around whom had been buried several dozen headless human individuals of different sexes and ages, the likely victims of ritual sacrifice. The necklace was made from about 200 carpometacarpus bones of a small bird species that remains to be identified.
- ItemAdvances in Titicaca basin archaeology(2006) Valdez, Lidio M.This edited volume explores the ancient history of the Andean Altiplano region. The editors, especially Stanish and Aldenderfer, have been working in the south central Andean region for more than a decade and have established themselves as leading scholars of the archaeology of the Altiplano. The volume consists of eighteen chapters, arranged in chronological order, which were written by several scholars who present the results of various field studies carried out in the Titicaca Basin over the years.
- ItemAncient use of coca leaves in the Peruvian central highlands(2015) Valdez, Lidio M.; Taboada, Juan; Valdez, J. ErnestoCoca, of the genus Erythroxylum, is a stimulant and painkiller that played key roles within the Inka state. As reported by the early Spanish chroniclers, coca was the most important plant offering during public rituals. Likewise, important landmarks within the Inka domain regularly received offerings of this precious leaf. Its high value is indicated by the fact that not only the living chewed the leaves on a regular basis, but also the dead carried coca leaves in their mouths. We still do not know when coca leaves were first used in the Peruvian central highlands. This uncertainty is largely due to the lack of coca leaves recovered from highland archaeological sites. Several leaves recently found at Convento in the northern part of the Ayacucho Valley are the first direct evidence from an archaeological context that, based on ceramic stylistic grounds, dates to sometime between the end of the Early Intermediate Period (ca. 1–550 ce) and the beginning of the Middle Horizon Period (ca. 550–1100 ce). The botanical identification also indicates that the source of the coca was the Pacific coast. This paper reports this unique finding and discusses its implications.
- ItemArqueologia de la Cuenca del Qaracha, Ayacucho, Peru(1994) Valdez, Lidio M.; Vivanco, CiriloIn order to evaluate the Precolumbian occupation of the Qaracha Basin (Ayacucho, Peru), we carried out an archaeological survey in 1988, which yielded evidence of three main occupations, the first under Wari domination ca. A.D. 600, with settlements located 2,800-3,650 m asl, in control of farmland linked to corn cultivation. Around A.D. 900 the Wari sites were abandoned, and new fortified sites were built in strategic positions in the upper elevations. Inka control of the central Andes brought about abandonment of the fortified sites and the founding of new Inka sites (mitimaes) near the ancient Wari sites. We believe that the first change was tied to collapse of the Wari state, which was followed by an unsettled situation in which former elements of the Wari state were at war. The final change ended the chaotic period with the birth of the Inka state in the Andes.
- ItemAsentamientos fortificados y conflicto en el valle de Acari, Perú(2010) Valdez, Lidio M.Conflict is a universal fact; However, its origins and especially its variability from one region to another remain poorly understood. The objective of this work is to discuss the specific case of the Acarí Valley, on the south coast of Peru, where recent archaeological studies have shown that the early Intermediate period (ca. 50 a.C. - 350 a.C.) was characterized by violence. On the one hand, the archaeological evidence that denotes violence in this valley is manifested through the presence of settlements provided with defensive systems. Because settlements designed for defense did not exist previously in this valley and in the entire south coast, evidence from the Acarí Valley provides an excellent opportunity to visualize the origins of the conflict in this region. On the other hand, the recent discovery in Acarí of dozens of bodies with indisputable signs of being decapitated, confirms that the beginnings of the Early Intermediate period were convulsed. Finally, the evidence from Acarí allows us to maintain that the so-called 'trophy heads' are the direct result of the violent actions in which the residents of the various settlements of this valley participated.
- ItemCahuachi: new evidence for an early Nasca ceremonial role(1994) Valdez, Lidio M.Having conducted archaeological excavations at the early Nasca site of Cahuachi in 1952-53, Strong concluded that the site was composed of temples, cemeteries, and house mounds. Subsequent scholars stressed the apparent presence of house structures, and this and its size led to an interpretation of the site as an urban center. This interpretation remained dominant in Peruvian archaeology until very recently.
- ItemCoca leaves in the context of the central Andean Wari state(2013) Valdez, Lidio M.; Taboada, JuanCoca, of the genus Erythroxylum (family Erythroxylacea) is a stimulant and painkiller that at the time of the Spanish conquest was widely used in the Central Andean region. Despite its undisputed position within the Andean society in general, archaeologically coca remains little investigated, particularly in the Peruvian central highland region. Consequently, it is uncertain, for instance, when coca leaves began being used in this region. This uncertainty is largely due to the difficulties of finding coca leaves at highland archaeological sites. New evidence coming from the northern part of Ayacucho Valley in the Peruvian central highlands which consists of several coca leaves represents the first direct proof for the presence of coca leaves in an archaeological context that, based on ceramic stylistic grounds, dates sometime between the end of the Early Intermediate Period (ca. 1 – 550 CE) and the beginning of the Middle Horizon Period (ca. 550 – 1100 CE). This unprecedented finding demonstrates that as early as the Middle Horizon, therefore several centuries before the rise of the Inka State, coca leaves were already used in the Peruvian central highlands. This paper presents the new evidence and discusses its immediate implications.
- ItemCoca leaves in the context of the central Andean Wari state(2013) Valdez, Lidio M.; Taboada, JuanThe Middle Horizon (ca. 550 – 1100 CE) was a period during which the Wari State emerged in the Peruvian central highland valley of Ayacucho and expanded beyond its heartland to exercise political and economic control over most of the Central Andes. One of the probable reasons for the expansion of Wari was to establish direct access over the resources of other regions, including the tropical forest region. In addition to the unprecedented finding of the burial of an elite Wari leader at Vilcabamba, east of the Apurimac Valley, archaeological research carried out in the Apurimac Valley has shown that the Wari State successfully colonized the region. In the particular case of Apurimac Valley, it has been suggested that the establishment of Wari settlements in the tropical forest region was in order to access local products, in particular coca leaves. Until recently, only indirect evidence indicated the use of coca leaves by the inhabitants of the Wari State. New evidence coming from a Wari settlement in the highlands, consisting in the fortuitous and unprecedented finding of coca leaves in association with Wari material culture, confirms that the Wari State produced and consumed coca leaves and that this product was likely transported from the Apurimac Valley.
- ItemColonialismo e imperialismo intelectual(2010) Valdez, Lidio M.The colonization of South America brought with it negative changes for the conquered peoples, who were not only denied their rights and ancestral customs, but were also forced to work for the colonizers. At the same time, while the western coffers were enriched, the resources of various types were extracted for the benefit of the invaders. This uncontrolled plunder of South America did not end with the always glorified 'independence.'
- ItemConflicto y decapitación humana en Amato (valle de Acarí, Perú)(2009) Valdez, Lidio M.In this article I present the results of the recent archaeological excavations carried out at Amato, a site established during the early phases of the Early Intermediate Period (ca. AD 1-350) in the Acari Valley, of the south coast of Peru. The findings consist of several dozen human skeletons, some of which are partially mummified. The main feature of the collection is that the skeletons present unmistakable signs of decapitation. In addition to the absence of the skulls, the upper cervical vertebra present cut marks indicating decapitation. The human remains include individuals of all ages and both sexes. Many of the remains were uncovered with ropes around their wrists and ankles, suggesting that they were treated as captives before their decapitation. Finally, additional information is discussed in this paper in order to argue that the early phases of the Early Intermediate Period were violent. Due to such stress, settlements established in the valley at this time were provided with defensive systems.
- ItemDecapitación y cabezas humanas del valle de Acarí, Perú(2010) Valdez, Lidio M.; Williams, Jocelyn S.; Bettcher, Katrina J.; Dausse, Lucie; Dausse, LucieArchaeological excavations at Amato, a site established at the beginning of the Early Intermediate period (circa 50 BC – 300 AD) in the Acari Valley of the Peruvian south coast, uncovered two isolated human heads from different contexts. One head was found near an area where dozens intentionally decapitated skeletons were recovered. The second head was located in association with the main wall that encloses the site. Both heads were buried in similar fashion to Early Intermediate period south coast trophy heads; however, these heads from Amato were not culturally modified (e.g. perforated frontal bone and/or artificially enlarged foramen magnum). These two isolated heads demonstrate that not all human decapitation in the Acari Valley was for the purposes of securing trophy heads. Based on these findings, we suggest that the purpose and motivation for human decapitation and head-taking in the past was complex.
- ItemDorothy Menzel y el estudio del estado Wari(2011) Valdez, Lidio M.One of the people who has had a profound impact on the study of the Wari State is undoubtedly Dorothy Menzel. Early in the development of archaeological research related to the Wari State, Menzel was able to trace the stylistic sequence of the Wari ceramics and, from that sequence, begin to reconstruct the development process of a quite complex society such as the Wari State. Her conviction that art is not only a means to transmit ideas and values of a society, but that art can also be deciphered to explain ancient social formations, were advantages that allowed Menzel to visualize the Wari State from a unique perspective. For her effect, Menzel paid particular attention to the association of the materials, as well as to the changes of diverse nature in the motifs that decorate the ceramics. Based on this procedure, Menzel visualized with an unprecedented certainty the way in which the Wari State originated, and then began with an entire process of expansion that came to incorporate much of what is now Peru. Finally, her analysis also facilitated her to outline the way in which the Wari State began to decline, the same that culminated with the total abandonment of its capital city. Until Menzel made this ambitious outline there was no similar work. Since then, those who participated and participate in this fascinating project to understand and explain the growth of the Wari State, have largely followed the scheme proposed by Menzel. The latter shows not only the acceptance of the model proposed by Menzel by many other specialists, but also the validity of the proposals made by Menzel about five decades ago.
- ItemDorothy Menzel y el estudio del estado Wari(2018) Valdez, Lidio M.Dorothy Menzel had been a researcher who has had profound impact on the study of the Wari state. Menzel’s conviction that art is not only a means to transmit ideas and values of a culture, but also can be deciphered to explain ancient cultural formations, enabled her to gain a broad understanding of the Wari state. Menzel paid special attention to ceramic associations, as well as to changes of pottery designs in order to trace a sequence of chronological significance. From the stylistic sequence she attempted to reconstruct the complex development process of Wari. Menzel divided the Middle Horizon Wari ceramics into four epochs (MH1, MH2, MH3, and MH4). On the basis of secure associations, Menzel also subdivided the first 2 epochs into MH1A and MH1B, and MH2A and MH2B, anticipating at the same time to make similar subdivisions for the epochs 3 and 4 when more associations become available. Once the stylistic sequence was established, Menzel was well positioned to discuss the development of the Wari state and its expansion beyond its Ayacucho Valley heartland. Finally, this approach allowed her to make some suggestions with regards to the decline of Wari that culminated in the eventual abandonment of its capital city. This was certainly a unique an ambitious endeavour since no similar study existed. More importantly, perhaps, is that this stylistic sequence established more than five decades ago continues being used by researchers involved in Wari studies, a testament of the enormous importance of Menzel’s work.
- ItemEcology and ceramic production in an Andean community: a reconsideration of the evidence(1997) Valdez, Lidio M.D. E. Arnold has argued that contemporary ceramic production in Quinua, Ayacucho, Peru, is "an adaptation to the marginal agricultural environment in which people began to maximize the use of nonagricultural resources." On the basis of the Quinua data, Arnold has stated that during the prehistoric Middle Horizon period, ceramic production in the Ayacucho Valley may have been due to the same factor since Quinua is located near the ancient city of Wari, an area with "sufficient quantity and diversity of ceramic resources" and thus ecologically favorable for pottery making. However, the existence of present-day pottery-making communities in areas of rich agricultural resources challenges Arnold's conclusions. Similarly, archaeological evidence from the Ayacucho Valley conflicts with Arnold's ecological characterization of ceramic production in Ayacucho.
- ItemEl centro administrativo Inca de Tambo Viejo(2012) Menzel, Dorothy; Riddell, Francis A.; Valdez, Lidio M.In this article we present the results of the archaeological studies carried out at the Inca administrative center of Tambo Viejo, the only facility of its character built by the Inca in the Acari Valley of the Peruvian south coast region. This study reveals, among others, the architectural complexity of the site and its enormous size. Likewise, this study demonstrates that Tambo Viejo has a long sequence of human occupation that began early in the Early Intermediate period and continued to colonial times. In this paper we evaluate the Inca ocupation of the site, taking into consideration the architecture. This analysis demonstrates that Tambo Viejo was established following an Inca plan; however, the architecture is local, suggesting that the builders of the site were from Acari. This observation allows us to argue that the Inca administration adapted to local construction patterns.
- ItemEl valle de Ayacucho y el Tawantinsuyo(2002) Valdez, Lidio M.; Valdez, J. ErnestoThis paper is aimed to assess the situation of the Ayacucho Valley of the Peruvian central highlands before and during the lnka occupation. Until very recently, it was argued that this valley was largely abandoned during lnka times and consequently played no role within the lnka Empire. Because of new fieldwork carried out on the northern portion of the valley, it is becoming evident that in the region there were several important lnka period sites. Before the lnka conquest, the inhabitants of the region occupied sites established in defensive positions and often at higher elevation. Following lnka conquest, most of these sites were relocated to Lower elevations. At the same time, the Local pre-lnka pottery style survived and continued being manufactured during lnka times, as its occurrence at both defensive sites and low elevation sites indicates. lnka related artifacts, however, are present only at lower elevation sites.
- ItemEnvironmental risk and population pressure: conflict over food and resources in the Acari Valley, Peru(2007) Valdez, Lidio M.The South Coast of Peru is a hot and dry region with high sand dunes that is relieved only by a series of small rivers that carry water a few months per year and form valleys made fertile by irrigation. One such valley is Acari, a narrow valley with limited arable land and scarce water. Despite such limitations, recent archaeological research carried out in the Acari valley indicates that during the Early Intermediate Period (circa AD 1 – 550) the inhabitants of this valley successfully managed to cultivate a variety of crops. Perhaps as a response to the harsh environmental conditions, food storage was also developed. This research also indicates that guinea pigs were locally raised and constituted a fundamental source of protein. Nonetheless, scarcity of resources, in particular of arable land, appears to have prompted stress manifested in form of conflict. Walled sites, buffer zones, and evidence for human decapitation strongly indicate that during this particular time period violence prevailed in the Acari Valley.
- ItemFortified settlements and the origins of conflict in the Acari Valley, Peru(2012) Valdez, Lidio M.Archaeological research carried out in the Acari Valley of the Peruvian south coast region reveals that the first half of the Early Intermediate Period (ca. 50 BCE – 350 CE) marked the emergence of the first fortified settlements in the valley. Archaeological excavations carried out at one such site resulted in the unprecedented finding of several dozen human remains that exhibited multiple signs of trauma. Such evidence, in conjunction with data on settlement patterns and site configuration, indicate that the first half of the Early Intermediate Period was a time of widespread conflict in the Acari Valley. The magnitude of the violence in which the inhabitants of the various fortified settlements of Acari were involved is manifested not only in the effort invested in building defensive barriers to protect the settlements, but also in capturing prisoners who eventually were decapitated.
- ItemFrom rural to urban: archaeological research in the periphery of Huari, Ayacucho Valley, Peru(2017) Valdez, Lidio M.; Valdez, J. ErnestoFor hundreds upon hundreds of years, humans lived in small settlements where most individuals, if not all, were linked by kinship ties. Many of these villages were occupied for generations and thus their occupants had a strong connection to the place. The villages were politically and economically autonomous, yet they were connected with adjacent villages by means of barter and intermarriage. Within a relatively short period of time, centuries-long occupied small villages were left vacant and replaced by fewer but much larger settlements identified as cities. In contrast to the rural based villages, cities began to house much larger numbers of residents, who not only were unfamiliar with each other but also were mainly concerned with their own well-being. Recent archaeological research carried out in the immediate periphery of Huari provides crucial information that indicates that the growth of Huari paralleled the abandonment of rural villages apparently in the midst of increasing conflict. The rural settlement of Huaqanmarka was occupied for several centuries, yet it was abandoned within a short period of time simultaneously with the desertion of other adjacent settlements.
- ItemHacia la identificación y análisis de la unidad doméstica Andina(2010) Valdez, Lidio M.During the last two decades, several archaeological studies paying particular attention to the domestic unit have been published. This attention shows not only the scholarly interest in the study of domestic areas, but it also highlights that such a consideration is vital in order to understand the process of production, distribution and consumption. It is timely to point out that the existing archaeological models currently in use are based on ethnographic evidence, complemented with ethnohistoric information. In many cases the so-called ‘ethnographic evidence’ is partial and therefore superficial. The uncritical consideration of such resources carries the danger of producing distorted results, with little or no benefit to archaeology overall. In order to understand and explain the Andean domestic unit, on the one hand, it is important to be cautious with the ethnographic evidence, and on the other hand, to develop models based on archaeological tangible evidence.