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- ItemThe effects of individual differences in sexism and sex on learning of nonsense syllables paired with pictured situations differing in sex-role appropriateness(1975) Gackenbach, Jayne; Auerbach, S. M.This study evaluated the effects of individual differences in attitudes toward sex roles on the learning of neutral material associated with situations differing in rated sex-role appropriateness. It was hypothesized that if sexism is a valid dimension as measured in this study, then "sexists" would learn nonsense syllables associated with scenes rated "role appropriate" faster than those rated "role inappropriate," since the latter scenes would be expected to be somewhat aversive for them. Forty-eight female and 44 male subjects were presented two separate sets of eight nonsense syllables paired with chosen pictures which differed in role appropriateness. The results revealed that for all subjects inappropriate scenes were learned faster than appropriate scenes, and scenes depicting females were learned faster than those depicting males. Among females, sexist subjects took a slightly longer tine to learn syllables associated with appropriate scenes than those associated with inappropriate scenes compared to nonsexists. Among males, nonsexists learned syllables paired with inappropriate scenes faster than those paired with appropriate scenes, while sexists showed relatively little difference in learning rates as a function of appropriateness.
- ItemLucid dreaming project(1980) Gackenbach, JayneAlthough lucid dreams, awareness of dreaming while in the dream state, are not mentioned directly in the Edgar Cayce readings, the conceptually similar phenomena of astral projection or out-of-body experiences (OOBE) are touched upon. (Sparrow, 1976) The exact relationship between OOBEs and dream lucidity is unknown. Some feel that they represent different perceptions of the same experience (Sparrow, 1976; Schapiro, 1975-76), while others view them as conceptually distinct phenomena with some similarities. (Green, 1968; Donahoe, 1974)
- ItemSpatio-temporal displacement and expression of feeling in dreams of emotionally expressive persons(1980) Kuiken, D.; Powell, RussExamined the relationship of expression of feeling during waking to expression of feeling and spatio-temporal displacement in dreams. 41 undergraduates, each of whom collected either 1 or 2 dreams at home, rated their dreams for expression of feeling, familiarity, and time passed since last experience with selected dream features. Ss then completed the Personal Orientation Inventory. An independent judge's ratings of expression of feeling in dreams was also obtained. Contrary to expectations, no significant correlations were found between the indices of expression of feeling (feeling reactivity, spontaneity, aggression) and either the Ss' or the judge's ratings of such expression in dreams. Further, the inventory indices of expression of feeling correlated positively and significantly with spatio-temporal displacememt in dreams. These results contradict the theory of R. Corriere et al (see record 1978-22405-001 ) according to which expression of feeling is inversely related to spatio-temporal displacement in dreams. An alternative hypothesis implicates expression of feeling in the process of integrating recent events with more remote memories.
- ItemSex differences in lucid dreaming incidence(1981) Gackenbach, JayneJohn Palmer wrote in 1980, that, “females were slightly more likely than males to have lucid dreams in both sub—samples, but the differences were not significant(11/10/81).”Both Hearne and Gackenbach have found this difference to be significant in their student samples.
- ItemLucid dreams content(1981) Gackenbach, JayneMost work on the content of these dreams has failed to control for individual differences in dream recall. Recently completed analysis of covariance with dream recall as the covariant indicates that previously reported differences between lucid and nonlucid dreams in terms of their perceptual qualities (i.e., vision, color, hearing, etc.) failed to emerge. Interestingly, these covariance analyses demonstrated that lucid dreams are a primarily cognitively realistic phenomena. Relatedly, the highest incidence of lucid dreams (I.e., 300 college students reported dreams weekly for 16 weeks) occurred as a result of the “dream— like” quality of the dream and not as a result of nightmares.
- ItemWell-meaning liberal male: typical hypocrite or uncomfortable alien(1981) Gackenbach, Jayne; Spiro, M.; Alexander, D.; Secco, R.The well-meaning liberal male (WMLM) is a man who talks a liberal stereotype but behaves inconsistently with his professed beliefs. Using Ajzen and Fishbein's model of behavioral prediction based on attitudinal assessment, males identified as WMLM's, sincere liberals, and traditionalists from the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) were compared. Subjects were asked to pose for photographs in nontraditional sex-roles, complete questionnaires regarding their attitudes about posing, release photographs for use, and complete a measure of sex-role attitudes. Analyses of behavioral intention scores and the number of signatures on photo-release forms revealed that only WMLM's held attitudes consistent with their behaviors. Sex-role-related self-perceptions rather than perceptions of others may be better predictors of male sex-role behaviors. In a second study, males (N=36), chosen on the basis of their self-perceptions of relative masculinity and femininity as measured by the BSRI, attempted to learn nonsense syllables paired with pictures of individuals engaged in nontraditional sex role activities. Men high in femininity were less able to learn the syllables. Self-perceptions of sex-role identity seem better predictors of male sex-role behaviors.
- ItemAndrogynous and undifferentiated differences in attributions of female success(1981) Gackenbach, Jayne; Taylor, M.Studies using unipolar models of sex role identity in conjunction with an attributional approach to female achievement prediction have found that androgynous women tend to consider ability to be a more feasible explanation for success than do either feminine or undifferentiated women. Androgynous, masculine, feminine and undifferentiated males and females (N=73) attributed reasons for female success to three types of cues: male-dominated, female-dominated, and exclusively female achievement areas. For external attributions, there were no differences among males, but feminine females were more likely than androgynous or masculine females to externally attribute female success. For internal attributions, feminine females were less likely than feminine males to use internal attributions across cues, while undifferentiated females were more likely than undifferentiated males to internally attribute across cues. Androgynous and masculine men and women reacted exactly opposite to each success activity. Results suggest that sex, sex role identity and situational variations occur in the prediction of female achievement behaviors.
- ItemBalance and lucid dreaming ability: a suggested relationship(1982) Gackenbach, JayneTwo lines of evidence support a relationship between balance and lucidity. Balance emerged from the factor structure of the content of lucid dreams but not from the content of ordinary dreams and REM burst have been found to reliably precede lucidity, such bursts resulting from internal stimulation of the vestibular nuclei. Since it is unclear whether the proposed relationship between balance and dream lucidity exists on a gross motor or on a vestibular level both were recently measured by myself.
- ItemDifferences between types of lucid dreams(1982) Gackenbach, JayneUndergraduate psychology students described lucid dreams and their situational determinants over a 16—week period. In terms of techniques used to determine lucidity the “dreamlike quality (48.2%) was reported most frequently followed by incongruent element (19.2%,), and nightmare initiated (15%) with other techniques constituting the remainder. When these three types of lucid dreams were compared in terms of situational constraints both the day before and the day after the dream and in terms of the content of these dreams an nteresting pattern of results emerged for the dreamlike initiated lucids vs. the nightmare initiated lucids. The day before nightmare initiated lucids subjects reported more tests and depressed feelings and fewer nonhostile feelings, feelings of attention and secure feelings than on days before lucid dreams which were initiated by the dreamlike quality of the dream.
- ItemPresleep determinants and postsleep results of lucid versus vivid dreams(1983) Gackenbach, Jayne; Curren, R.; Cutler, G.The effects of three types of waking situational variables on the emergence of awareness of dreaming while dreaming or dream lucidity as well as the relative waking effects of having had this dream, experience were considered in the present inquiry. That is, 320 psychology students provided dream content and pre—post sleep situational information about at least one dream over a 16— week, once weekly, data gathering period. Of the 1601 dreams collected 1252 were classified as vivid or highly recallable and 211 as verifiably lucid. Pre— and post—sleep in— non was gathered on the research participants activities; such as tests, extracurricular events, homework, work for pay and household chores; interpersonal interaction with friends, lovers, family members and coworkers; and emotions, including anxiety, hostility, happiness, pleasantness, rejection feelings, fearfulness, and arousal. Dream content information collected and analyzed herein included type of dream, amount of recall, visual perceptions, color perceptions, positive emotions, negative emotions, perceptions, voices, taste—smell perceptions, palpable sensations, control over dream content, and verbal behaviors.
- ItemIntelligence, creativity and personality differences between individuals who vary in self-reported lucid dream frequency(1983) Gackenbach, Jayne; Curren, R.; LaBerge, S.; Davidson, D.; Maxwell, P.Well—educated, predominately white adults with incomes averaging $20,000 a year (males 81; females 102) responded to a two—phase mail survey project due to their interest in dream lucidity. Intellectual, creative and personality differences between individuals who differed in the frequency with which they reported spontaneously experiencing this type of dream were the focus of this inquiry. Four scales (i.e., verbal, numerical, spatial, and perceptual completion) from the Comprehensive Ability Battery (CM) were used to assess intellectual differences. The Remote Associations Test (RAT) and four scores (i.e., fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration) from the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) constituted the creativity measures. Personality characteristics assessed included: masculinity, femininity, and androgyny scores from the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ), public and private self— consciousness and social anxiety from the Self—Consciousness Scale (SCS) and internal and external risk from the Dane Risk Scale (DRS).
- ItemThe relationship of the lucid dreaming ability to mental imagery experiences and skills(1983) Gackenbach, Jayne; Prill, S.; Westron, P.A review of research pertaining to the relationship of waking imagery abilities and experiences to the lucid dreaming ability will be presented. This work includes both spontaneous waking images such as hypnagogic images, hallucinations and daydreams and experimentally produced waking images, such as mental rotation tasks.
- ItemLucid dreams: the content of conscious awareness of dreaming during the dream(1983) Gackenbach, Jayne; Schillig, B.Adults were recontacted after having participated in a month-long day day-by-day dream recording project and asked to provide additional information about their lucid dreams, that is, awareness of the dream while still in the dream. Two data sources - daily dream tally sheets and the Lucid Dreaming Questionnaire - were then factor analyzed. Several multiple analyses of variance were also computed in order to determine possible structural and contextual differences between lucid dreams and two types of nonlucid dreams, namely, vivid and ordinary. Lucid dreams were found to be structurally distinct phenomena from vivid or ordinary dreams and were primarily characterized by a sense of control and balance. Regarding content differences between these dreams, it was concluded that lucid dreams are more perceptual, emotional and cognitive than their counterparts.
- ItemNegative air ions and lucidity induction: additional data(1983) Gackenbach, Jayne; Adler, T.; LaBerge, S.It has been reported that using a negative ion generator in ones bedrooms may be detrimental to falling asleep. The general influence of negative air ions on the brain may be a lower arousal threshold. Too much arousal keeps us awake; but by controlling the negative ion concentration individuals may find that they are able to sleep while retaining a tendency for heightened arousal in dreams. In this way negative ions may be conducive to lucidity. Adler reports that the frequent appearance of rain in his dreams in an ionized environment may also express this arousal effect. Sometimes this “rain” assumes bizarre forms: emeralds falling out of the sky, thousands of birds descending, but usually it is ordinary rain. Falling water and rainstorms are the natural source of negative air ions.
- ItemAn estimate of lucid dreaming incidence(1984) Gackenbach, JaynePrevalence, how many people have ever had at least one lucid dream; and frequency, how often does an individual experience these dreams are two ways of conceptualizing lucid dreaming incidence. Seven surveys have attempted to ascertain the prevalence of lucid dreaming in both student (Palmer, 1979; LaBerge, in press; Gackenbach, Rokes, Sachau & Synder, 1984) and adult (Palmer, 1979; Kohr, 1980; Blackmore, in press; Gackenbach, 1978; Gackenbach, Curren, LaBerge, Davidson & Maxwell, 1983) samples. Among the latter estimates of having had at least one lucid dream range from 100% (Gackenbach et al., 1983) to 47% (Blackmore, in press). Both sample characteristic considerations and understanding of the concept clarify the picture. Kohr (1980), Gackenbach (1978) and Gackenbach et al. (1983) were all dealing with highly motivated adult samples. That is, people who have an unusually high interest in dreaming and/or lucid dreaming. Thus their estimates tend to run high (Kohr, 70%; Gackenbach, 76%; Gackenbach et al., 100%). In the Palmer (1979) and Blackmore (in press) surveys, adults were randomly chosen from the telephone directory in the case of the former and from the electoral register in the case of the latter. Consequently, their estimates are considerably more conservative: Palmer, 55% and Blackmore, 47%. However, there is no indication that they attempted to verify that their respondents understood the concept.
- ItemLucid dreaming ability and verbal creativity(1984) Gackenbach, Jayne; Hammons, S.A lucid dream is most commonly defined as one in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming while the dream is in progress. It has been called a "dream of knowledge* (Fox, 1962); "dreaming" (Castaneda, 1972); a "breakthru dream" (Corriere & Hart, 1977); "Onteric Image" (Meseguer, 1960); a "rational inner experience" (Whlieman, 1961); a "vivid dream" (Hart, 1959); and "cognitive awareness during sleep" (Evans, 1972). Some propose, that lucidity can help one do realize the dream-like quality of life (Faraday 1974; Rapport, 1948; Tart, 1969). This view is central to Tibetan Buddhism (Chang, 1977; Evans-Wentz, 1958) about which Evans-Wentz notes, "the primary purpose for establishing this continuity of consciousness is to allow the dreamer to begin to realize that the environment of the waking state is a self-created dream as well!" (p. 12). Western philosophers have also taken this persepctive on the lucid dream. Rapport (1948) explains, “I was often positive-yes, positive within the dream's illusion of reality, that I had found the basic secret that explains life" (p. 315).
- ItemThe lucid dreaming ability and parasympathetic functioning(1984) Gackenbach, Jayne; Walling, J.; LaBerge, S.The thesis of the present inquiry is that superiority in parasympathetic functioning, especially in women, will be related to lucid dreaming. The hypothesis is based on several lines of evidence. First, age leads to a progressive decrease in sympathetic reactivity and an increase in parasympathetic reactivity (Gelhorn & Loofburrow, 1963). Correspondingly, Gackenbach (in press) reports that among adults, older women were more likely to report experiencing lucidity of dreams. Sympathetic functioning as evidenced by the release of adrenaline has been associated with feelings of anxiety (Cohen & Silverman, 1959). The data on anxiety for women is consistent with the hypothesis whereas for men data are mixed. Specifically, adult women who frequently have lucid dreams reported less covert and overt anxiety (Gackenbach, in press) and less social anxiety (Gackenbach, et al., 1983) while men reported less overt anxiety (Gackenbach, in press) but more social anxiety (Gackenbach, et al., 1983). Finally, the lack of neuroticism has also been related to parasympathetic functioning (Lester, 1980) and the lucid dreaming quality (Gackenbach, in press).
- ItemThe relationship between field independence and lucid dreaming ability(1985) Gackenbach, Jayne; Heilman, N.; Boyt, S.; LaBerge, S.It was hypothesized that field independence would be more characteristic of individuals who are able to recognize that they are dreaming while still in the dream (i.e., "lucid dreamers"), than of those who do not possess this ability. In three studies the measures of field independence utilized were: Group Embedded Figures Test, Embedded Figures Test and Portable Rod-and-Frame Test. The hypothesis was strongly supported for men and partially supported for women.
- ItemEye movement direction and the lucid dreaming ability(1985) Gackenbach, JayneIn conjunction with an experiment assess-ing the vestibular sensitivity of frequently lucid dreamers as measured by caloric nystagmus (Gackenbach, Sachau & Rokes, 1982), spontaneous nystagmus or baseline eye movement data were obtained. This is a report on the results and implications of this baseline measure.
- ItemSex differences in lucid dreaming frequency: a second look(1985) Gackenbach, JayneIn earlier issues of Lucidity Letterit was reported that females experience more lucid dreams than males (Vol 1, Numbers 1 & 2). Dream recall was not controlled in any of these studies. One-way analyses of covariance on various lucid dreaming frequency estimates with dream recall as the covariate for four different samples resulted is no sex differences. Table 1 lists the specifics of these findings. It should be noted that in all four samples care was taken to ensure that subjects understood the concept of dream lucidity by collecting a sample lucid dream and requiring the inclusion of a recognition phrase (i.e. “then I realized I was dreaming”) in the transcript before a subject was included in subsequent data analyses.