Faculty of Health and Community Studies
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- ItemPhysical fitness and performance standards for the Canadian army(1990) Lee, S.W.; Chahal, Paul; Singh, M.; Wheeler, G.Examines physical fitness standards and testing, with particular emphasis on the fitness requirements of the Canadian Army. The importance of physical fitness to the Canadian Army is reviewed and physical fitness tests administered in the Canadian military are analyzed. An overview of Canadian and international fitness testing includes the following tests: the Canadian Army uses CF EXPRES Programme derived from the Canadian Standardized Test of Fitness, the Battle Efficiency Test (BET), a 19-item Indoor Standardized Obstacle Course (ISOC); United States Army uses the Army Physical Readiness Test (APRT); the Australian Army utilizes the Physical Training Test (PTT), the British Army has three types of tests including the Army Personal Fitness Assessment; the Swedish Army, the Physical Working Capacity test and the Soviet Army, the GTO programme which means Ready for Labour and Defence.
- ItemEffects of mental training on the performance of military endurance and precision tasks in the Canadian Forces(1991) Couture, R.T.; Singh, M.; Lee, W.; Chahal, Paul; Wankel, L.; Oseen, M.; Wheeler, G.This study investigated the effect of two cognitive training strategies, associative and dissociative thinking, on soldiers' ability to perform a weight-loaded march. Forty Infantry soldiers from the Canadian Army completed three hours of marching. Following the march, subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups: associative (biofeedback), dissociative (meditation), combined associative-dissociative (biofeedback and meditation) and control. After two weeks of mental training, the soldier performed the march again. Analyses showed that all soldiers had improved in their ability to estimate the amount of time remaining in the march and in their ability to reduce heart rate levels while marching. Significant changes however were not found in perceived fatigue levels and in rates of perceived exertion during the march. Results are discussed in light of these findings.
- ItemPhysical fitness and work performance standards: a proposed approach(1992) Chahal, Paul; Lee, S.W.; Oseen, M.; Singh, M.; Wheeler, G.Traditionally physical performance standards have been developed by a process of normative referencing and are generally established on the bases of age and gender. Many of the jobs assigned to workers can be very physically demanding and result in injury. In addition, men and women may lack physical capacity to fulfil the requirements of such jobs. To satisfy Canadian Human Rights legislation requirements of equal opportunity, regardless of age and gender, the establishment of task-related physical performance standards is an appropriate and desirable approach. These standards must be based on the physical requirements of the jobs and should be within the physiological capacities of the workers. In this paper, the authors have proposed a model to develop task-related performance standards. The purposes, physical capacities, and steps for development of such standards are explained. Applicability of related tests and models also have been outlined. Such an approach should result in a drop of work-related injuries, reduce work for the Workers Compensation Boards and provide greater job satisfaction for the employees. The paper presents a framework for development of specific physical work performance standards for different industries.
- ItemCan mental training help to improve shooting accuracy?(1999) Couture, Roger T.; Singh, Mohan; Lee, Wayne; Chahal, Paul; Wankel, Leonard; Oseen, Margaret; Wheeler, GaryThe study investigated the effects of two mental training strategies separately and combined on subjects’ shooting performance following an endurance march. Further, the study examined the suitability of a ten‐session training programme for the police force. On Trial 1, following a three hour march, 44 subjects shot 25 rounds. Subjects were then randomly assigned to four groups (biofeedback, relaxation, combined biofeedback and relaxation and control). After two weeks of mental training, subjects performed both tasks again on Trial 2. A repeated two‐way ANOVA indicated a significant improvement (p < 0.01) in shooting accuracy by the combined group. Suitability for this mental training programme was strongly supported by the experimental groups (71 per cent to 80 per cent). Subjects were generally better able to relax and focus. They were also more aware of their body and their physiological control. Results are discussed in light of potential benefits for cognitive strategies in precision tasks following endurance activities.
- ItemLet the children play: nature’s answer to early learning(2006) Hewes, JanePlay is a universal phenomenon with a pervasive and enduring presence in human history. Play has fascinated philosophers, painters, and poets for generations. Article 31 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child recognizes the significance of play in the lives of children, acknowledging play as a specific right, in addition to and distinct from the child’s right to recreation and leisure. Early childhood educators have long recognized the power of play. The significant contribution of play to young children’s development is well documented in child psychology, anthropology, sociology, and in the theoretical frameworks of education, recreation, and communications. Being able to play is one of the key developmental tasks of early childhood. Play is “the leading source of development in the early years”: it is essential to children’s optimal development.
- ItemSocial development: environmental sustainability and social well-being(2007) Vareed, BaijuSignificant changes have taken place in the discussion and direction of development during the last two decades. A major shift which occurred, as a result of various dialogues, was towards the noneconomic spheres of development. The international conventions on various themes convened by the UN have shed light on human, social and existential dimensions of development. The less developed nations have had an influential role in bringing in the non-economic factors in the discussions of development. Sustainability as well as social well being have been established as norms in development policies and practices. But the latter, it seems, has not been adequately absorbed into the whole discussion. An amalgamation of sustainability and social well being is essential in devising an appropriate strategy of development that ensures the existence of the environment and decent living of all for the present and future generations.
- ItemAssessing capacity in the complex patient: RCAT's unique evaluation and consultation model(2007) Pachet, Arlin; Newberry-Koroluk, Andrea; Erskine, LeslieThis paper describes the development of a unique multidisciplinary patient capacity assessment team, the Regional Capacity Assessment Team (RCAT), which operates in the Calgary Health Region of Alberta. The goals of this paper are to provide a brief review of seminal models that influenced RCAT's development, discuss its ethical and theoretical underpinnings, and provide an overview of the RCAT approach to the completion of complex capacity assessments. The overview of the RCAT model will elucidate our multidisciplinary assessment algorithm, our consultation model, and describe our specialized assessment tools. This paper will be of interest to health care practitioners and administrators looking for a cost-effective, efficient, and clinically sound model for complex capacity assessments.
- ItemAn innovative framework for psychosocial assessment in complex mental capacity evaluations(2008) Newberry-Koroluk, Andrea; Pachet, ArlinThis study describes an innovative tool developed by the Regional Capacity Assessment Team (RCAT) to assess unique psychosocial factors related to capacity evaluations. Capacity is a socio-legal construct entailing the ability to understand choices, appreciate consequences and follow through (or direct a surrogate) with chosen options. RCAT's targeted psychosocial assessment includes medico-legal factors, social history and supports, coping skills, religious/cultural factors and risk of abuse. RCAT completes the psychosocial assessment to determine whether a full capacity assessment is required (referral disposition) and to determine the impact of an adult's social functioning on their decision-making capacity (capacity determination). RCAT's psychosocial assessment protocol was developed after a comprehensive literature review of capacity assessment and incorporates recommended practices in geriatric social work and psychology. This study will synthesise the pertinent literature, discuss cultural interviewing processes significant to capacity, caregiver assessment and describe the tool itself. Suggestions for future research and appropriate implementation of this tool are provided.
- ItemLearning through play: a view from the field(2010) Hewes, JaneThe summary of research on learning through play provided in the CEECD articles and accompanying commentary by Howe comes at a time when many play advocates believe that play is “under siege.” It also comes at a time when many Canadian early childhood educators are striving to secure a pedagogical focus on play in the development and implementation of early learning curricula. These reviews provide a valuable foundation for interpreting the available evidence on learning through play, as well as raising more fundamental questions about the significance of play in early childhood.
- ItemExperiences of newly qualified Canadian social worker(2011) Newberry-Koroluk, AndreaThe article focuses on the experiences of newly qualified social workers in order to develop recommendations for social work educators, researchers, employers, and new social workers. It mentions that the social workers includes several social work methods including micro skills such as interviewing, giving feedback, and working with hostile clients.
- ItemFootball and "tolerance": black football players in 20th century Canada(2012) Valentine, John; Darnell, S.This chapter draws on the history of Black football players in 20th-century Canada in order to explore and challenge the notion of Canadian racial tolerance in relation to Blackness.
- ItemNew racism and old stereotypes in the National Hockey League: the stacking of aboriginal players into the role of enforcer(2012) Valentine, JohnTracing the roles played by Aboriginal hockey players in the National Hockey League (NHL) from the mid-1970s to 2010, this chapter takes an historical, longitudinal view to explain the abundance of Aboriginals, that is, Indians, Inuit, and Métis men, in the role of enforcer, a one-dimensional player who does little more than fight. "Stacking" is a term that draws attention to certain social factors that account for the position — or, for the purposes of this chapter, the role — a player is assigned or expected to fulfill as a member of a team. To situate the phenomenon of stacking Aboriginal hockey players as enforcers, the place of Aboriginal peoples within Canada is examined, particularly an historically informed analysis of the concept of Othering within democratic racism. To build the case of the stacking of Aboriginal hockey players, quantitative data is analyzed, with penalty minutes, major penalties, and fights examined for each National Hockey League season in which Aboriginal representation made up at least 1 percent of the league's players. The results indicate that Aboriginal NHL players have disproportionately fulfilled the role of enforcer; these results are considered in relation to the history of the culture of racism in Canada.
- ItemImpact of peak oxygen uptake and muscular fitness on the performance of activities of daily living in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(2012) Kato, Dave; Rodgers, Wendy M.; Stickland, Michael K.; Haennel, Robert G.PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressively debilitating disease, which, over time, may compromise patient ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between selected parameters of physical fitness and performance of ADL in COPD patients. METHODS: A convenience sample of 23 COPD patients (11 men and 12 women, age 6869 years) was studied at the conclusion of an exercise rehabilitation program. Patients were assessed using the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance 10 Test (PFP-10) battery, chest press, leg press, and a symptom limited graded exercise test. RESULTS: The PFP-10 global score was 54 +/- 12, and 11 patients fell below a global score of 57, which has been established as the threshold for independence. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was 20 +/- 4 mL[middle dot]kg21[middle dot]min21, the forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced expiratory volume ratio was 0.58 +/- 0.12, grip strength was 61 +/- 16 kg (both hands), and chest press and leg press were 4 +/- 3 and 12 +/- 7 kg/kg body weight, respectively. The associations between the PFP-10 VO2peak and leg press were modest (r = 0.501, P = .014; and r = 0.547, P = .008) as was grip strength (r = 0.418, P = .047). There was no association between the PFP-10 and forced expiratory volume, forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, or chest press (r = -20.040, P = .856; r = 20.212, P = .330; and r = 0.120, P = .595), respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this investigation suggest that lower body strength is important in optimizing ADL performance in COPD patients.
- ItemSocial work and hermeneutic phenomenology(2012) Newberry-Koroluk, AndreaIn this article, I discuss the connections between social work practice and interpretive approaches to knowledge building, introduce and situate hermeneutic phenomenology for novice social work researchers, and explore the fit between hermeneutic phenomenology and social work. In this paper, I also present a historical, methodological, and philosophical overview of the roots of hermeneutic/interpretive phenomenology from Augustine to Sartre. I advocate for the congruence between an hermeneutic approach and social work research due to its focus on inquiry as application, emphasis on the situated nature of human experiences, concept of attention to the unspoken or undisclosed, idea of the hermeneutic circle as a link between individual experiences and larger structures, fusion of horizons, and inclusion of the practitioner identity in research activities.
- ItemUnderstanding workplace experiences of first-year Canadian social workers: a hermeneutic phenomenological study(2014) Newberry-Koroluk, AndreaThere is limited global research addressing the experiences of first-year social workers in general, and a dearth of scholarship specific to the Canadian context. In 2012–2013, I conducted in-depth interviews with nine early-career (0.6–3.7 years post-Bachelor of Social Work/BSW), young adult (aged 23.9¬–32.9) social workers in Alberta, Canada to answer the question: how do young adult, early-career Alberta social workers understand subjective feelings towards their work experiences in their first year of practice following completion of the BSW? My research method was hermeneutic phenomenology, an interpretive approach to understanding the meaning of lived experiences. Symbolic interactionism provided the theoretical foundation for my research, facilitating dual attention to structural factors and the dynamics of individual interpretation and agency. My findings relate to the intersection of age and gender in the structure and meaning of the experiences of first-year social workers; institutional hierarchy and internalized marginalization of the social work role; first-year social workers’ fears of committing a cataclysmic error in practice; the meaning of encountering one’s own privilege and marginalization; and disappointments in early practice and individual narratives of transformation and idealism renegotiated. The literature review and findings suggest that three interconnected areas influence the subjective experiences of new social workers: institutional structures, social positionality, and lived experience. Through the interplay of these three areas, subjective workplace experiences are made understandable and meaningful to early-career social workers. From a broad inter-disciplinary perspective, this work is a substantial contribution to scholarship on gender relations and the workplace. Implications for social work education include challenging internalized oppression that reflects gendered norms in caregiving work; teaching multiple ways of evaluating practice rather than relying exclusively on post-positivist epistemologies and methodologies; encouraging reflexivity about practitioner social location; and disrupting narratives that presuppose a single “social work perspective” operating in agencies. In the realm of social work practice, applications include actively challenging the devaluation of young women workers and advocating for better working conditions. Future research in social work could explore gender in the early-career period across the life course and gender identity continuum.
- ItemSeeking balance in motion: the role of spontaneous free play in promoting social and emotional health in early childhood care and education(2014) Hewes, JaneThere is accumulating scientific evidence of the potential of play and playfulness to enhance human capacity to respond to adversity and cope with the stresses of everyday life. In play we build a repertoire of adaptive, flexible responses to unexpected events, in an environment separated from the real consequences of those events. Playfulness helps us maintain social and emotional equilibrium in times of rapid change and stress. Through play, we experience flow—A feeling of being taken to another place, out of time, where we have controlled of the world. This paper argues that spontaneous free play, controlled and directed by children and understood from the child’s perspective, contributes to children’s subjective experience of well-being, building a foundation for life-long social and emotional health. The paradoxical nature of young children’s spontaneous free play is explored. Adaptability, control, flexibility, resilience and balance result from the experience of uncertainty, unpredictability, novelty and non-productivity. These essential dimensions of young children’s spontaneous free play typically produce play which is experienced by adults as chaotic, nonsensical and disruptive. The article concludes with a preliminary discussion of the challenges and possibilities of providing for spontaneous free play indoors, in early childhood care and education programs.
- ItemChercheurs de « l’entre-deux » - Travailleurs sociaux dans le rôle de chercheurs : proximité et distance d’une ethnographie interpretative(2014) Ouedraogo, ValerieLe présent article porte sur les réflexions de terrain menées au Burkina Faso dans le cadre d’une étude doctorale qui a porté sur le retour forcé de travailleurs migrants burkinabè. Il interpelle à la fois les chercheurs de « l’entre-deux » et les chercheurs en travail social qui se trouvent pris à porter des chapeaux parfois en tension en tant que personne appartenant à la société étudiée, praticiens et chercheurs. L’objectif de notre article se resserre à cet effet autour des deux points c’est-à-dire chercheuse de l’entre-deux et travailleuse sociale placée dans le rôle de chercheuse avec le terrain.
- ItemAligning perspectives of subjective well-being: comparing spouse and colleague perceptions of social worker happiness(2014) Graham, John; Shier, Micheal; Newberry-Koroluk, Andrea; Esina, ElenaSocial workers experience higher rates of burnout and attrition when compared to other health related occupational groups. Previous research on the well being of social workers has tended to focus on the social workers themselves. But the development of well-being is dynamic and is fostered through relationships and interactions with others. In the case of social workers, these relationships include workplace, professional, and personal life interactions. This research sought to better understand the level of congruence between a social worker’s perspective of well-being and perspectives held by significant people in their workplace and at home. Utilizing qualitative methods we interviewed colleagues and spouses (n=10) of social workers that were found to have high levels of work-related subjective well-being. The findings support previous conclusions on the positive subjective well-being (SWB) of practicing social workers, but also indicate a lack of a deeper understanding of the nuances that contribute to social worker SWB. These findings are particularly useful for social workers trying to enhance their SWB, and have direct applicability in education and professional development settings that seek to enhance social worker self-care.
- ItemHitting the ground running: neo-conservatism and first year Canadian social workers(2014) Newberry-Koroluk, AndreaThis paper explores how the popular use of the expression “hitting the ground running” in reference to beginning social work practice draws upon military imagery and reflects neoconservative expectations of first-year social workers. Discussion of the international and Canadian definitions of social work, key social work values, the neo-conservative paradigm, and the role of language in understanding human experiences provides context to this analysis. Ultimately, it is argued that it is in the best interests of the social work profession for the phrase hitting the ground running to be abandoned (or used critically) when making reference to first-year social workers, and a new metaphor is suggested that could take its place in the social work lexicon.
- ItemTransformative impacts: trafficking survivors for sexual exploitation and their involvement in an emancipatory study in Nepal(2016) Dhungel, RitaTrafficking of girls and women for sexual exploitations and their reintegration have become serious social issues in the world, particularly in Nepal, drawing the attention of local and international communities, including United Nations, government, academia, practitioners and activists. Nevertheless, the paucity of research on reintegration of trafficking survivors in the Nepalese context exhibits the need for further research. For example, in previous studies, the experiences of trafficking survivors in their reintegration have been examined and some strategies have been proposed through a qualitative approach. However, no studies have been conducted from social justice and feminist paradigms, and therefore the study was designed to bridge the gaps identified in academic investigations. Through the use of Participatory Action Research (PAR), the purpose for this study is to promote transformational/experiential learning opportunities to trafficking survivors and measure its transformative change. By using a number of PAR tools, eight trafficking survivors as co-researchers have examined under researched experiences of survivors on transformational learning opportunities and its implications to transformative impacts. For the purpose of the study, the survivors were significantly involved in analyzing data, mainly in categorizing and coding, however, a praxis (action-reflection-action) encouraging participants to engage in meaningful dialogues and actions, was executed as emancipatory research and liberatory educational tools throughout the study period. The results demonstrate that personal and social transformations were achieved, grounded in experiential evidence in personal narratives. Implications of the study are discussed in the conclusion.