Browsing by Author "Anuar, Sabiqah Tuan"
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ItemA flow-through enzymatic microreactor for the rapid conversion of triacylglycerols into fatty acid ethyl ester and fatty acid methyl ester derivatives for GC analysis(2015) Anuar, Sabiqah Tuan; Mugo, Samuel; Curtis, JonathanA flow-through enzymatic microreactor for the rapid conversion of triacylglycerols (TAG) into fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) or fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) derivatives was developed. The microreactor was a porous silica monolith fabricated within a 320 μm ID fused silica capillary with lipase from Candida antarctica immobilized onto the large surface area of the monolith. The microreactor was used for the room temperature ethanolysis of TAG from edible oils including canola, sesame, soybean and refined-bleached-deodorized palm oil. GC/MS-NCI and GC/FID were used to prove the identification of the FAEE and FAME products. The microreactor completely transformed the starting oils into FAEEs or FAMEs, without the use of any reagents other than alcohol, in quantities suitable for GC analysis. The prototype microreactors were reusable >5 times with ethanol and 2 times with methanol. The FAEE products obtained using the microreactor were similar to those produced using commercial Novozyme 435 enzyme beads as well as by catalysis with ethanolic H2SO4. ItemSynthesis and characterization of mesoporous polymer-silica hybrid monolith using conventional sol-gel method for enzyme support(2018) Idrohani, Noor Hidayah; Mugo, Samuel; Anuar, Sabiqah TuanThis research involved developing a novel solid support for an enzyme attachment, focusing on synthesizing a polymer-silica hybrid monolith via in-situ sol-gel polymerization method. The fabrication of a very large surface area of the monolith was done using a cold mixture of poly(ethylene-glycol) (PEG) with tetraethyl-orthosilicate (TEOS) and acetic acid with different ratios of PEG amount and molecular weights, namely PEG-0.1, PEG-0.2, and PEG-0.3. The experiments were conducted at a very low temperature of 0 °C, followed by overnight gelification and aging. The sol then underwent calcination at 200 °C forming a hybrid monolith. The characterizations of hybrid monoliths were performed by Attenuated-Total Reflection–Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Surface Area and Porosity Analyzer using both Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) methods to describe the developed monoliths. FTIR shows the presence of Si-O-Si stretching associated with the monolith network due to the polymerization process together with the presence of silanol functional group (Si-OH) that can be exploited further for covalent attachment with the enzyme. Results also showed that the optimum ratios for the hybrid polymer-silica synthesis were PEG-0.1with 10,000 Mn surface area of mesoporous network recorded for 494.121 m2/g and pore volume of 0.265 cm3/g. These findings showed that the synthesized hybrid monolith on fused silica capillary will provide a vast surface area with desirable functional groups; thus, very promising for lipase immobilization support that can be used in future small-scale lipid transformation.