Browsing by Author "Kenney, Janice"
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ItemCharacterizing returning polymers in hydraulic-fracturing flowback and produced water: Implications for colloid formation (includes associated erratum)(2021) Von Gunten, K.; Snihur, K. N.; McKay, R.; Kenney, Janice; Serpe, Michael; Alessi, Daniel S.Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) friction reducer was investigated in produced water from hydraulically fractured wells in the Duvernay and Montney Formations of western Canada. Produced water from systems that used nonencapsulated breaker had little residual solids (<0.3 g/L) and high degrees of hydrolysis, as shown by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Where an encapsulated breaker was used, more colloidal solids (1.1–2.2 g/L) were found with lower degrees of hydrolysis. In this system, the molecular weight (MW) of polymers was investigated, which decreased to <2% of the original weight within 1 hour of flowback. This was accompanied by slow hydrolysis and an increase in methine over methylene groups. Increased polymer-fragment concentrations were found to be correlated with a higher abundance of metal-carrying colloidal phases. This can lead to problems such as higher heavy-metal mobility in the case of produced-water spills and can cause membrane fouling during produced-water recycling and reuse. ItemExperimental study of pH effect on uranium (UVI) particle formation and transport through quartz sand in alkaline 0.1 M sodium chloride solutions(2020) Kirby, Matthew Edward; Watson, Jonathan Stuart; Najorka, Jens; Kenney, Janice; Krevor, Samuel; Weiss, Dominik J.A thorough understanding of the aqueous uranium VI (UVI) chemistry in alkaline, sodium containing solutions is imperative to address a wide range of critical challenges in environmental engineering, including nuclear waste management. The aim of the present study was to characterise experimentally in more detail the control of pH on the removal of UVI from aqueous alkaline solutions through particle formation and on subsequent transport through porous media. We conducted first static batch experiments in the pH range between 10.5 and 12.5 containing 10 ppm UVI in 0.1 M NaCl solutions and examined the particles formed using filtration, dynamic light scattering, transition electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. We found that at pH 10.5 and 11.5, between 75 and 96 % of UVI was removed from the solutions as clarkeite and studtite over a period of 48 h, forming particles with hydrodynamic diameters of 640 ± 111 nm and 837 ± 142 nm, respectively and representing aggregates of 10′s nm sized crystals randomly orientated. At pH 12.5, the formation of particles >0.2 μm became insignificant and no UVI was removed from solution. The mobility of UVI in these solutions was further studied using column experiments through quartz sand. We found that at pH 10.5 and 11.5, UVI containing particles were immobilised near the column inlet, likely due physical immobilisation of the particles (particle straining). At pH 12.5, however, UVI quantitatively eluted from the columns in the filter fraction <0.2 μm. The findings of our study reinforce a strong control of solution pH on particle size and U removal in alkaline solutions and subsequently on mobility of U through quartz porous media. ItemImproved accuracy in multicomponent surface complexation models using surface-sensitive analytical techniques: Adsorption of arsenic onto a TiO2/Fe2O3 multifunctional sorbent(2020) Bullen, Jay C.; Kenney, Janice; Fearn, Sarah; Kafizas, Andreas; Skinner, Stephen; Weiss, Dominik J.Novel composite materials are increasingly developed for water treatment applications with the aim of achieving multifunctional behaviour, e.g. combining adsorption with light-driven remediation. The application of surface complexation models (SCM) is important to understand how adsorption changes as a function of pH, ionic strength and the presence of competitor ions. Component additive (CA) models describe composite sorbents using a combination of single-phase reference materials. However, predictive adsorption modelling using the CA-SCM approach remains unreliable, due to challenges in the quantitative determination of surface composition. In this study, we test the hypothesis that characterisation of the outermost surface using low energy ion scattering (LEIS) improves CA-SCM accuracy. We consider the TiO2/Fe2O3 photocatalyst-sorbents that are increasingly investigated for arsenic remediation. Due to an iron oxide surface coating that was not captured by bulk analysis, LEIS significantly improves the accuracy of our component additive predictions for monolayer surface processes: adsorption of arsenic(V) and surface acidity. We also demonstrate non-component additivity in multilayer arsenic(III) adsorption, due to changes in surface morphology/porosity. Our results demonstrate how surface-sensitive analytical techniques will improve adsorption models for the next generation of composite sorbents. ItemUranium surface processes with sandstone and volcanic rocks in acidic and alkaline solutions(2023) Kenney, Janice; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan; Fendorf, Scott; Alessi, Daniel S.; Weiss, Dominik J.Understanding the behaviour of uranium waste, for disposal purposes, is crucial due to the correlation between pH values and the disposal of distinct types of waste, with low level waste typically associated with acidic pH values, and higher and intermediate level waste commonly related to alkaline pH values. We studied the adsorption of U(VI) on sandstone and volcanic rock surfaces at pH 5.5 and 11.5 in aqueous solutions with and without bicarbonate (2 mM HCO3–) using XAS and FTIR. In the sandstone system, U(VI) adsorbs as a bidentate complex to Si at pH 5.5 without bicarbonate and as uranyl carbonate species with bicarbonate. At pH 11.5 without bicarbonate, U(VI) adsorbs as monodentate complexes to Si and precipitates as uranophane. With bicarbonate at pH 11.5, U(VI) precipitated as a Na-clarkeite mineral or remained as a uranyl carbonate surface species. In the volcanic rock system, U(VI) adsorbed to Si as an outer sphere complex at pH 5.5, regardless of the presence of bicarbonate. At pH 11.5 without bicarbonate, U(VI) adsorbed as a monodentate complex to one Si atom and precipitated as a Na-clarkeite mineral. With bicarbonate at pH 11.5, U(VI) sorbed as a bidentate carbonate complex to one Si atom. These results provide insight into the behaviour of U(VI) in heterogeneous, real-world systems related to the disposal of radioactive waste.