Browsing by Author "Martin, Gerard M."
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ItemAversive, appetitive and flavour avoidance responses in the presence of contextual cues(2011) Brown, Adam R.; Penney, Alexander; Skinner, Darlene M.; Martin, Gerard M.Appetitive, aversive and avoidance responses to a flavoured solution in distinct contexts were examined. Rats placed in either a white or black box were given access to saccharin. Consumption was followed by an injection of a toxin in one but not the other box. Rats showed more aversive responses in anticipation of and during the presentation of saccharin in the box paired with the toxin than in the box paired with vehicle. The reverse was true for appetitive responses. The acquisition of conditioned avoidance paralleled the acquisition of aversive and appetitive responses. These findings demonstrate that the toxin does not have to overlap exposure to contextual cues to produce conditioned aversive responses, that the aversive and appetitive responses to a flavour can be modulated by visually distinct environments that predict the toxin, and that conditioned avoidance and conditioned aversions develop simultaneously during acquisition. Thus, environmental cues can modulate anticipatory nausea and may prove helpful in the control of nausea in clinical settings.