Browsing by Author "Pitman, Taylor"
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- ItemEstablishing zebrafish as a model to study the anxiolytic effects of scopolamine(2017) Hamilton, Trevor; Morrill, Adam; Lucas, Kayla; Gallup, Joshua; Harris, Megan; Healey, Meghan; Pitman, Taylor; Schalomon, Melike; Digweed, Shannon; Tresguerres, MartinScopolamine (hyoscine) is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist that has traditionally been used to treat motion sickness in humans. However, studies investigating depressed and bipolar populations have found that scopolamine is also effective at reducing depression and anxiety symptoms. The potential anxiety-reducing (anxiolytic) effects of scopolamine could have great clinical implications for humans; however, rats and mice administered scopolamine showed increased anxiety in standard behavioural tests. This is in direct contrast to findings in humans, and complicates studies to elucidate the specific mechanisms of scopolamine action. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of zebrafish as a model system to test anxiety-like compounds using scopolamine. Similar to humans, scopolamine acted as an anxiolytic in individual behavioural tests (novel approach test and novel tank diving test). The anxiolytic effect of scopolamine was dose dependent and biphasic, reaching maximum effect at 800 µM. Scopolamine (800 µM) also had an anxiolytic effect in a group behavioural test, as it significantly decreased their tendency to shoal. These results establish zebrafish as a model organism for studying the anxiolytic effects of scopolamine, its mechanisms of action and side effects.
- ItemZebrafish aversion to infrasound in an open field test(2023) Scatterty, Kale R.; Pitman, Taylor; Eckersley, Tristan; Schmaltz, Rodney; Hamilton, TrevorAquatic species are capable of detecting infrasound (sub-20 Hz frequencies) which may be a source of anthropogenic pollution and have a detrimental impact on the environmental fitness of fish. Infrasound is generated by infrastructure, producing acoustic frequency peaks that are not discernible by humans. The presence of these frequencies may therefore impact the environmental wellbeing of aquatic laboratory animals, which are often housed in spaces adjacent to facilities producing infrasound. To investigate the potential impact of infrasound, we used wild-type zebrafish (Danio rerio) and exposed them to short periods of infrasound at either 5, 10, 15, or 20 Hz, or 0 Hz as a control group. A motion-tracking software system was used to monitor fish movement in an open field test and arena location, distance moved, and immobility were quantified. There was a significant effect of 15 Hz which caused the fish to spend more time away from the infrasound source. The 20 Hz group also spent significantly less time in the zone closest to the speaker. There were no differences in distance moved or immobility between infrasound and control groups. These findings demonstrate that 15 Hz infrasound has aversive effects on zebrafish, causing them to move away from the sound source. To enhance environmental enrichment and wellbeing of aquatic laboratory animals, sources of infrasound pollution should be investigated and mitigated.