Browsing by Author "Stacey, Jack"
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ItemBurial dolomitization driven by modified seawater and basal aquifer-sourced brines: Insights from the Middle and Upper Devonian of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin(2020) Stacey, Jack; Hollis, Cathy; Corlett, Hilary; Koeshidayatullah, ArdiansyahDolomitization in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin has been extensively researched, producing vast geochemical datasets. This provides a unique opportunity to assess the regional sources and flux of dolomitizing fluids on a larger scale than previous studies. A meta-analysis was conducted on stable isotope, strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr), fluid inclusion and lithium-rich formation water data published over 30 years, with new petrographic, X-ray diffraction, stable isotope and rare-earth element (REE+Y) data. The Middle to Upper Devonian Swan Hills Formation, Leduc Formation and Wabamun Group contain replacement dolomite (RD) cross-cut by stylolites, suggesting replacement dolomitization occurred during shallow burial. Stable isotope, REE+Y and 87Sr/86Sr data indicate RD formed from Devonian seawater, then recrystallized during burial. Apart from the Wabamun Group of the Peace River Arch (PRA), saddle dolomite cement (SDC) is more δ18O(PDB) depleted than RD, and cross-cuts stylolites, suggesting precipitation during deep burial. SDC 87Sr/86Sr data indicate contributions from 87Sr-rich basinal brines in the West Shale Basin (WSB) and PRA, and authigenic quartz/albite suggests basinal brines interacted with underlying clastic aquifers before ascending faults into carbonate strata. The absence of quartz/albite within dolomites of the East Shale Basin (ESB) suggests dolomitizing fluids only interacted with carbonate strata. We conclude that replacement dolomitization resulted from connate Devonian seawater circulating through aquifers and faults during shallow burial. SDC precipitated during deep burial from basinal brines sourced from basal carbonates (ESB) and clastic aquifers (WSB, PRA). Lithium-rich formation waters suggest basinal brines originated as residual evapo-concentrated Middle Devonian seawater that interacted with basal aquifers and ascended faults during the Antler and Laramide Orogenies. These results corroborate those of previous studies but are verified by new integrated analysis of multiple datasets. New insights emphasize the importance of basal aquifers and residual evapo-concentrated seawater in dolomitization, which is potentially applicable to other regionally dolomitized basins. ItemEvaluating new fault-controlled hydrothermal dolomitization models: insights from the Cambrian Dolomite, Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin(2020) Koeshidayatullah, Ardiansyah; Corlett, Hilary; Stacey, Jack; Swart, Peter K.; Boyce, Adrian; Robertson, Hamish; Whitaker, Fiona; Hollis, CathyFault-controlled hydrothermal dolomitization in tectonically complex basins can occur at any depth and from different fluid compositions, including ‘deep-seated’, ‘crustal’ or ‘basinal’ brines. Nevertheless, many studies have failed to identify the actual source of these fluids, resulting in a gap in our knowledge on the likely source of magnesium of hydrothermal dolomitization. With development of new concepts in hydrothermal dolomitization, the study aims in particular to test the hypothesis that dolomitizing fluids were sourced from either seawater, ultramafic carbonation or a mixture between the two by utilizing the Cambrian Mount Whyte Formation as an example. Here, the large-scale dolostone bodies are fabric-destructive with a range of crystal fabrics, including euhedral replacement (RD1) and anhedral replacement (RD2). Since dolomite is cross-cut by low amplitude stylolites, dolomitization is interpreted to have occurred shortly after deposition, at a very shallow depth (<1 km). At this time, there would have been sufficient porosity in the mudstones for extensive dolomitization to occur, and the necessary high heat flows and faulting associated with Cambrian rifting to transfer hot brines into the near surface. While the δ18Owater and 87Sr/86Sr ratios values of RD1 are comparable with Cambrian seawater, RD2 shows higher values in both parameters. Therefore, although aspects of the fluid geochemistry are consistent with dolomitization from seawater, very high fluid temperature and salinity could be suggestive of mixing with another, hydrothermal fluid. The very hot temperature, positive Eu anomaly, enriched metal concentrations, and cogenetic relation with quartz could indicate that hot brines were at least partially sourced from ultramafic rocks, potentially as a result of interaction between the underlying Proterozoic serpentinites and CO2-rich fluids. This study highlights that large-scale hydrothermal dolostone bodies can form at shallow burial depths via mixing during fluid pulses, providing a potential explanation for the mass balance problem often associated with their genesis. ItemOrigin and evolution of fault-controlled hydrothermal dolomitization fronts: a new insight(2020) Koeshidayatullah, Ardiansyah; Corlett, Hilary; Stacey, Jack; Swart, Peter K.; Boyce, Adrian; Hollis, CathyDolomitization is one of the most significant diagenetic reactions in carbonate systems, occurring where limestone (CaCO3) is replaced by dolomite (CaMg (CO3)2) under a wide range of crystallization temperatures and fluids. The processes governing its formation have been well studied, but the controls on the position of dolomitization fronts in ancient natural settings, particularly in a fault-controlled hydrothermal system (HTD), have received remarkably little attention. Hence, the origin and evolution of HTD dolomitization fronts in the stratigraphic record remain enigmatic. Here, a new set of mineralogical and geochemical data collected from different transects in a partially dolomitized Cambrian carbonate platform in western Canada are presented to address this issue. Systematic patterns of sudden decrease in the magnesium content (mol% MgCO3) and increase in porosity were observed towards the margin of the body. Furthermore, fluid temperatures are cooler and Owater values are less positive at the dolomitization front than within the core of the body. These changes coincide with a change from poorly ordered, planar-e dolomite with multiple crystal zonations at the margin, to an unzoned, well-ordered, interlocking mosaic of planar-s to nonplanar dolomite in the core of the body. These phenomena are hypothesized to reflect dynamic, self-limiting processes in the formation and evolution of HTD dolomitization fronts through (i) plummet of dolomitization potential at the head of dolomitizing fluids due to progressive consumption of magnesium and fluid cooling; and (ii) retreat of dolomitization fronts towards the fluid source during subsequent recrystallization of the dolomite body, inboard of the termination, once overdolomitization took place. This new insight illustrates how dolomitization fronts can record the oldest phase of dolomitization, instead of the youngest as is often assumed. Formation of porosity is interpreted to occur as the result of acidification-induced grain leaching during the development of dolomitization fronts. This mechanism, coupled with retrogradation of dolomitization fronts, may help to explain the apparent enhancement of porosity in proximity to dolomitization fronts. ItemRegional fault-controlled shallow dolomitization of the Middle Cambrian Cathedral Formation by hydrothermal fluids fluxed through a basal clastic aquifer(2021) Stacey, Jack; Corlett, Hilary; Holland, Greg; Koeshidayatullah, Ardiansyah; Cao, Chunhui; Swart, Peter K.; Crowley, Stephen; Hollis, CathyThis study evaluates examples of hydrothermal dolomitization in the Middle Cambrian Cathedral Formation of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Kilometer-scale dolomite bodies within the Cathedral Formation carbonate platform are composed of replacement dolomite (RD), with saddle dolomite-cemented (SDC) breccias occurring along faults. These are overlain by the Stephen Formation (Burgess Shale equivalent) shale. RD is crosscut by low-amplitude stylolites cemented by SDC, indicating that dolomitization occurred at very shallow depths (<1 km) during the Middle Cambrian. Clumped isotope data from RD and SDC indicate that dolomitizing fluid temperatures were >230 °C, which demonstrates that dolomitization occurred from hydrothermal fluids. Assuming a geothermal gradient of 40 °C/km, due to rift-related basin extension, fluids likely convected along faults that extended to ∼6 km depth. The negative cerium anomalies of RD indicate that seawater was involved in the earliest phases of replacement dolomitization. 84Kr/36Ar and 132Xe/36Ar data are consistent with serpentinite-derived fluids, which became more dominant during later phases of replacement dolomitization/SDC precipitation. The elevated 87Sr/86Sr of dolomite phases, and its co-occurrence with authigenic quartz and albite, likely reflects fluid interaction with K-feldspar in the underlying Gog Group before ascending faults to regionally dolomitize the Cathedral Formation. In summary, these results demonstrate the important role of a basal clastic aquifer in regional-scale fluid circulation during hydrothermal dolomitization. Furthermore, the presence of the Stephen Formation shale above the platform facilitated the build-up of fluid pressure during the final phase of dolomitization, leading to the formation of saddle dolomite-cemented breccias at much shallower depths than previously realized. ItemShortwave infrared hyperspectral imaging as a novel method to elucidate multi-phase dolomitization, recrystallization, and cementation in carbonate sedimentary rocks(2021) McCormick, Cole A.; Corlett, Hilary; Stacey, Jack; Hollis, Cathy; Feng, Jilu; Rivard, Benoit; Omma, Jenny E.Carbonate rocks undergo low-temperature, post-depositional changes, including mineral precipitation, dissolution, or recrystallisation (diagenesis). Unravelling the sequence of these events is time-consuming, expensive, and relies on destructive analytical techniques, yet such characterization is essential to understand their post-depositional history for mineral and energy exploitation and carbon storage. Conversely, hyperspectral imaging offers a rapid, non-destructive method to determine mineralogy, while also providing compositional and textural information. It is commonly employed to differentiate lithology, but it has never been used to discern complex diagenetic phases in a largely monomineralic succession. Using spatial-spectral endmember extraction, we explore the efficacy and limitations of hyperspectral imaging to elucidate multi-phase dolomitization and cementation in the Cathedral Formation (Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin). Spectral endmembers include limestone, two replacement dolomite phases, and three saddle dolomite phases. Endmember distributions were mapped using Spectral Angle Mapper, then sampled and analyzed to investigate the controls on their spectral signatures. The absorption-band position of each phase reveals changes in %Ca (molar Ca/(Ca + Mg)) and trace element substitution, whereas the spectral contrast correlates with texture. The ensuing mineral distribution maps provide meter-scale spatial information on the diagenetic history of the succession that can be used independently and to design a rigorous sampling protocol.