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Cultural nationalism, anti-Americanism, and the federal defense of the Canadian Football League

dc.contributor.authorValentine, John
dc.description.abstractDuring the 1960s nationalism flourished in Canada as did American influence, both cultural and economically, as well as separatist sentiment in Quebec. The Canadian federal government became more interventionist to combat threats to Canadian sovereignty: internal threats from Quebec and external threats from the United States. The federal government used sport as a nation-building tool and eventually acted to protect the Canadian Football League (CFL) as a display of resistance to Americanization and in an attempt to unite French and English. Canadian football had become a symbol of the nation and therefore could be used by the government in a symbolic way to resist cultural imperialism and promote national unity. On two occasions the federal government acted to ensure the CFL preserved its Canadian identity; first, to prevent Canadian-based football teams from joining an American professional football league, and second, to prevent American-based teams from joining the CFL. John Munro was the key Canadian politician who formulated policy to protect Canadian football.
dc.identifier.citationValentine, J. (Nov. 2019). “Cultural Nationalism, Anti-Americanism, and the Federal Defense of the Canadian Football League,” American Review of Canadian Studies, 49:3, 376-393. DOI: 10.1080/02722011.2019.1660454
dc.rightsAll Rights Reserved
dc.subjectCanadian Football League
dc.subjectUS cultural influence in Canada
dc.subjectnational unity
dc.subject1960s and 1970s
dc.titleCultural nationalism, anti-Americanism, and the federal defense of the Canadian Football Leagueen