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- ItemPhysiological knowledge retention in second-year bachelor of science and psychiatric nursing students(2023) Narnaware, Yuwaraj; Pawliuk, Brandi; Neumeier, Melanie; Cuschieri, Sarah; Chahal, PaulNumerous studies have demonstrated the difficulty of retaining and applying anatomical and physiological knowledge experienced by students in medical and allied health disciplines, although few studies focus on nursing students (Narnaware and Neumeier, 2020, 2021a). MacEwan University students in the Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) and the Bachelor in Psychiatric Nursing (BPN) programs take the same first-year physiology course. With the understanding that discipline choice potentially impacts knowledge retention, this study aimed to determine the overall difference in physiological knowledge retention between second-year BScN and BPN students and if there is a difference based on the organ system.
- ItemContent retention of cell and membrane transport for physical education students(2023) Martin, Noah; Chahal, Paul; Narnaware, YuwarajHuman physiology is considered a foundational course in the Physical Education program. The objective of the present study was to evaluate content retention of cell and plasma membrane transport for first-year Physical Education University Transfer physiology students over eight weeks. Results show that the knowledge retention was observed to be week-specific, highest in weeks one and three and lower for other weeks. Therefore, content reinforcement can be used as an interventional strategy to improve long-term knowledge retention in Physical Education University Transfer students.
- ItemContent reinforcement of cell and membrane transport between kinesiology and arts & science students(2023) Ma, Robin; Chahal, Paul; Narnaware, YuwarajThe present study evaluates content reinforcement of cell membrane transport over eight weeks for Physical Education and Arts and Science physiology students. The highest retention for physical education students was in weeks 1 and 3, whereas for the Arts and Science students, it was the highest in weeks 2 and 3. Knowledge was comparatively higher for Physical Education students than for the Arts and Science students. Therefore, relatively more robust interventional strategies need to be implemented for Arts and Science students to improve knowledge retention.
- ItemFunctional vagal input to chemically identified neurons in pancreatic ganglia as revealed by Fos expression(1999) Wang, Jiulin; Zheng, Huiyuan; Berthoud, Hans-RudolfThe importance of neural elements in the control of both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic secretory functions and their coordination with gastrointestinal, hepatic, and general homeostatic functions is increasingly recognized. To better characterize the vagal efferent input to the pancreas, the capacity of electrical vagal stimulation to induce expression of c-Fos in neurochemically identified neurons of intrapancreatic ganglia was investigated. At optimal stimulation parameters, unilateral stimulation of either the left or right cervical vagus induced Fos expression in ∼30% of neurons in the head and 10–20% of neurons in the body and tail of the pancreas. There was no Fos expression if no stimulation or stimulation with a distally cut vagus was applied. Large proportions of neurons contained nitric oxide synthase as assessed with NADPH diaphorase histochemistry (88%) and choline acetyltransferase. The proportion of nitrergic and nonnitrergic neurons receiving vagal input was not different. It is concluded that a significant proportion of pancreatic neurons receives excitatory synaptic input from vagal preganglionic axons and that many of these vagal postganglionic neurons can produce nitric oxide and acetylcholine.
- ItemEffect of needle puncture and electro-acupuncture on mucociliary clearance in anesthetized quails(2006) Wang, Jiulin; Tai, Shusheng; Sun, Feng; Xutian, Stevenson; Wang, Tianshan; King, MalcolmBackground: Acupuncture therapy for obstructive respiratory diseases has been effectively used in clinical practice and the acupuncture points or acupoints of Zhongfu and Tiantu are commonly used acupoints to treat patients with the diseases. Since the impaired mucociliary clearance is among the most important features of airway inflammation in most obstructive respiratory diseases, the effect of needle puncture and electro-acupuncture at the specific acupoints on tracheal mucociliary clearance was investigated in anesthetized quails. Methods: Mucociliary transport velocity on tracheal mucosa was measured through observing the optimal pathway, and fucose and protein contents in tracheal lavages were determined with biochemical methods. In the therapeutic group, needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to the acupoints was applied without or with constant current output in 2 mA and at frequency of 100 Hz for 60 minutes. In the sham group, electro-acupuncture stimulation to Liangmen was applied. Results: Our present experiments demonstrated that the electro-acupuncture stimulation to Zhongfu and Tiantu significantly increased tracheal mucociliary transport velocity and decreased the content of protein in the tracheal lavage, compared with the control group. Moreover, either needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to Zhongfu and Tiantu significantly reverted the human neutrophil elastase-induced decrease in tracheal mucociliary transport velocity and human neutrophil elastase -induced increase in the contents of fucose and protein in the tracheal lavage, compared with the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that either needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to the effective acupoints significantly improves both airway mucociliary clearance and the airway surface liquid and that the improvements maybe ascribed to both the special function of the points and the substantial stimulation of electricity.