Browsing by Author "Baker, B. I."
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- ItemEvidence that cortisol may protect against the immediate effects of stress on circulating leukocytes in the trout(1996) Narnaware, Yuwaraj; Baker, B. I.Rainbow trout stressed by an intraperitonal injection of saline displayed reduced phagocytic activity of their spleen and head-kidney macrophages within 3 hr. Phagocytic activity was similarly depressed by injecting noradrenalin, but was maintained in fish injected with the adrenergic blocking agent phentolamine, suggesting that endogenous catecholamines are involved in this stress response. Since stress may increase the number of circulating granulocytes, it is proposed that noradrenalin, released during stress, causes the liberation of active macrophages from the lymphocytic tissue, the remaining macrophages therefore showing a lowered phagocytic index. Cortisol injection, like phentolamine, prevented the depressive effect of stress on the phagocytic index but did not antagonize the depressive effect of exogenous noradrenalin. It is suggested that the stress-induced release of endogenous catecholamines may be prevented by cortisol. Injection stress caused a decline in the number of circulating lymphocytes/thrombocytes, indicating their retrafficking into some other tissue. This was opposed by cortisol and by high doses of noradrenalin. It is proposed that cortisol or noradrenalin may oppose, directly or indirectly, the expression of adhesion molecules which are normally induced after stress.
- ItemInfluence of environmental color and diurnal phase on MCH gene expression in the trout(1995) Suzuki, M.; Narnaware, Yuwaraj; Baker, B. I.Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) gene expression in the brain of rainbow trout, reared and maintained in either pale or black-coloured tanks, was studied using in situ hybridization histochemistry. MCH transcripts were most prevalent in the magnocellular neurones of the nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLT), which project to the pituitary gland. They were also present, although at much lower levels, in dorsally projecting parvocellular neurones, sited more posteriorly above the lateral ventricular recess (LVR). In the NLT the most intense hybridization signal was seen over the pituitary stalk; above the LVR, the most active neurones were located caudally. In both the NLT and above the LVR, MCH hybridization signal was 4-fold stronger in white-reared fish than in black-reared fish. There was also a marked diurnal variation in MCH expression in both sites, with high levels at 16.00 h and lower levels at 04.00 h. The results show that gene activity in both hormonal (NLT) and neuromodulator/neurotransmitter (LVR) MCH neurones is induced by pale environmental colour and that MCH gene activity is subject to pronounced diurnal variation.