Browsing by Author "Enggist, Andreas"
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- ItemEffect of KCl on melting in the Mg2SiO4-MgSiO3-H2O system at 5 GPa(2011) Chu, Linglin; Enggist, Andreas; Luth, Robert W.To examine the effect of KCl-bearing fluids on the melting behavior of the Earth’s mantle, we conducted experiments in the Mg2SiO4–MgSiO3–H2O and Mg2SiO4–MgSiO3–KCl–H2O systems at 5 GPa. In the Mg2SiO4–MgSiO3–H2O system, the temperature of the fluid-saturated solidus is bracketed between 1,200–1,250°C, and both forsterite and enstatite coexist with the liquid under supersolidus conditions. In the Mg2SiO4–MgSiO3–KCl–H2O systems with molar Cl/(Cl + H2O) ratios of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6, the temperatures of the fluid-saturated solidus are bracketed between 1,400–1,450°C, 1,550–1,600°C, and 1,600–1,650°C, respectively, and only forsterite coexists with liquid under supersolidus conditions. This increase in the temperature of the solidus demonstrates the significant effect of KCl on reducing the activity of H2O in the fluid in the Mg2SiO4–MgSiO3–H2O system. The change in the melting residues indicates that the incongruent melting of enstatite (enstatite = forsterite + silica-rich melt) could extend to pressures above 5 GPa in KCl-bearing systems, in contrast to the behavior in the KCl-free system.
- ItemFluid characteristics of a quartz-carbonate vein in the Canadian Rocky Mountains(2016) LaRiviere, Sarah; Enggist, AndreasDifferent vein generations can be identified within a hand specimen of a quartz-carbonate vein system from the Rocky Mountains. Textural analysis of thin sections reveals a relative age of the veins. Analyses of calcite minerals of the older vein yield relatively low SrO contents of 0.22 wt% with little variation and relatively low MgO contents of 0.43 wt%. The calcite of a younger vein contain SrO contents ranging from 0.18 to 0.41 wt% and higher MgO contents ranging from 0.58 to 0.64 wt%. Melting temperatures of ice of primary fluid inclusions in calcite range between -3.7 to -4.2°C and -2.1 to -2.7°C for the older and younger vein, respectively.
- ItemFluid inclusions of quartz-carbonate veins in the Canadian Rocky Mountains(2015) LaRiviere, Sarah; Enggist, AndreasVein systems in crustal rocks record a variety of processes, including fluid migration and extensive mass transfer, and they preserve information about the composition, temperature, and pressure conditions that mitigate rock-fluid interaction during vein formation. This study will attempt to characterize the formational sequence and origin of fluid inclusions observed in several samples extracted from a quartz-carbonate vein system in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, and explore the role of fluid-rock interaction in the formation of these veins. Preliminary observations of thin sections taken from vein samples are detailed conjointly with petrographic images and a brief review of the formation and significance of fluid inclusions in rock-hosted vein systems.
- ItemPhase relations of phlogopite and pyroxene with magnesite from 4 to 8 GPa: KCMAS–H2O and KCMAS–H2O–CO2(2016) Enggist, Andreas; Luth, Robert W.To constrain the melting phase relationships of phlogopite and magnesite in the presence of clino- and orthopyroxene, we performed experiments in the K2O–CaO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–H2O (KCMAS–H2O) and K2O–CaO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–H2O–CO2 (KCMAS–H2O–CO2) systems at pressures of 4–8 GPa and temperatures from 1100 to 1600 °C. We bracketed the carbonate-free solidus between 1250 and 1300 °C at 4 and 5 GPa, and between 1300 and 1350 °C at 6, 7 and 8 GPa. The carbonate-bearing solidus was bracketed between 1150 and 1200 °C at 4, 5 and 6 GPa, and between 1100 and 1150 °C at 7 and 8 GPa. Below the solidus in both systems at 4–6 GPa, phlogopite is in equilibrium with enstatite, diopside, garnet (plus magnesite in the carbonate-bearing system) and a fluid. At 7 GPa, phlogopite coexists with KK-richterite, enstatite, diopside, garnet (plus magnesite in the carbonate-bearing system) and a fluid. KK-richterite is the only stable K-bearing phase at 8 GPa and coexists with enstatite, diopside, garnet (plus magnesite in the carbonate-bearing system) and a fluid. In KCMAS–H2O, phlogopite is present to ~100 °C above the solidus. Olivine forms at the solidus and coexists with enstatite, diopside, garnet and melt. At depth in a subcontinental lithospheric mantle keel, phlogopite would be stable with orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and magnesite to ~5 GPa along a 40 mW/m2 geotherm. A hydrous, potassic and CO2-bearing melt that intrudes the subcontinental mantle can react with olivine, enstatite and garnet, crystallizing phlogopite, magnesite and potentially liberating a hydrous fluid.
- ItemPhase relations of phlogopite with magnesite from 4 to 8 GPa(2012) Enggist, Andreas; Chu, Linglin; Luth, Robert W.To evaluate the stability of phlogopite in the presence of carbonate in the Earth's mantle, we conducted a series of experiments in the KMAS-HO-CO system. A mixture consisting of synthetic phlogopite (phl) and natural magnesite (mag) was prepared (phl-mag; wt%) and run at pressures from 4 to 8 GPa at temperatures ranging from 1,150 to 1,550°C. We bracketed the solidus between 1,200 and 1,250°C at pressures of 4, 5 and 6 GPa and between 1,150 and 1,200°C at a pressure of 7 GPa. Below the solidus, phlogopite coexists with magnesite, pyrope and a fluid. At the solidus, magnesite is the first phase to react out, and enstatite and olivine appear. Phlogopite melts over a temperature range of ~150°C. The amount of garnet increases above solidus from ~10 to ~30 modal% to higher pressures and temperatures. A dramatic change in the composition of quench phlogopite is observed with increasing pressure from similar to primary phlogopite at 4 GPa to hypersilicic at pressures ≥5 GPa. Relative to CO-free systems, the solidus is lowered such, that, if carbonation reactions and phlogopite metasomatism take place above a subducting slab in a very hot (Cascadia-type) subduction environment, phlogopite will melt at a pressure of ~7.5 GPa. In a cold (40 mWm) subcontinental lithospheric mantle, phlogopite is stable to a depth of 200 km in the presence of carbonate and can coexist with a fluid that becomes Si-rich with increasing pressure. Ascending kimberlitic melts that are produced at greater depths could react with peridotite at the base of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, crystallizing phlogopite and carbonate at a depth of 180-200 km.
- ItemTTG-type plutonic rocks formed in a modern arc batholith by hydrous fractionation in the lower arc crust(2013) Jagoutz, Oliver; Schmidt, Max W.; Enggist, Andreas; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Hamid, Dawood; Hussain, ShahidWe present the geochemistry and intrusion pressures of granitoids from the Kohistan batholith, which represents, together with the intruded volcanic and sedimentary units, the middle and upper arc crust of the Kohistan paleo-island arc. Based on Al-in-hornblende barometry, the batholith records intrusion pressures from ~0.2 GPa in the north (where the volcano-sedimentary cover is intruded) to max. ~0.9 GPa in the southeast. The Al-in-hornblende barometry demonstrates that the Kohistan batholith represents a complete cross section across an arc batholith, reaching from the top at ~8–9 km depth (north) to its bottom at 25–35 km (south-central to southeast). Despite the complete outcropping and accessibility of the entire batholith, there is no observable compositional stratification across the batholith. The geochemical characteristics of the granitoids define three groups. Group 1 is characterized by strongly enriched incompatible elements and unfractionated middle rare earth elements (MREE)/heavy rare earth element patterns (HREE); Group 2 has enriched incompatible element concentrations similar to Group 1 but strongly fractionated MREE/HREE. Group 3 is characterized by only a limited incompatible element enrichment and unfractionated MREE/HREE. The origin of the different groups can be modeled through a relatively hydrous (Group 1 and 2) and of a less hydrous (Group 3) fractional crystallization line from a primitive basaltic parent at different pressures. Appropriate mafic/ultramafic cumulates that explain the chemical characteristics of each group are preserved at the base of the arc. The Kohistan batholith strengthens the conclusion that hydrous fractionation is the most important mechanism to form volumetrically significant amounts of granitoids in arcs. The Kohistan Group 2 granitoids have essentially identical trace element characteristics as Archean tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) suites. Based on these observations, it is most likely that similar to the Group 2 rocks in the Kohistan arc, TTG gneisses were to a large part formed by hydrous high-pressure differentiation of primitive arc magmas in subduction zones.