Browsing by Author "Orme-Johnson, David"
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- ItemElectrophysiological correlates of higher states of consciousness during sleep in long-term practitioners of the transcendental meditation program(1997) Mason, Lynne; Alexander, Charles; Travis, Fred; Marsh, G.; Orme-Johnson, David; Gackenbach, Jayne; Mason, D.; Rainforth, Maxwell; Walton, KennethStandard ambulatory night sleep EEG of 11 long-term practitioners of transcendental meditation reporting higher states of consciousness during sleep (the experimental group) was compared with that of 9 short-term practitioners and 11 nonpractitioners (all Ss aged 21–50 yrs). EEG tracings during Stages 3 and 4 sleep show that experimental Ss had theta-alpha activity simultaneously with delta activity and decreased chin EMG during deep sleep compared with short-term controls. In the 1st 3 cycles, experimental Ss had significantly greater theta2 (6–8 Hz)-alpha1 (8–10 Hz) relative power during Stages 3 and 4 than did the combined control groups. There was a graded difference across groups during Stages 3 and 4 in theta2–alpha1 power. Experimental Ss also had increased REM density during REM periods relative to short-term controls.
- ItemIntelligence and higher states of consciousness: a longitudinal study(1990) Cranson, Robert; Alexander, Charles; Orme-Johnson, David; Gackenbach, JayneWhen William James (1890) introduced the concept of consciousness into American psychology, he argued that beyond the range of normal waking consciousness there is the possibility of exceptional states of consciousness that are completely "discontinuous" with discursive thought. He argued that these heightened states of awareness could be induced under specifiable conditions, could influence thought and behavior profoundly, and could be adaptive for the individual. He challenged psychology to investigate these states scientifically. The onset of the behaviorist revolution almost completely overshadowed this field of psychology (Hilgard, 1980). However, some groups of investigators continued to investigate these states, particularly the Jungian school (1956, 1960, 1980); Abraham Maslow (1968, 1977) and his school of humanistic psychology; and the movement known as transpersonal psychology (Grof, 1983; Rothberg, 1986; Sutich, 1976; Wilber, 1980). These experiences, called "peak experiences" by Maslow, have also been referred to as "transpersonal experiences," "flow," and others. Recently, a larger number of researchers have again begun to recognize and investigate these phenomena (e.g., Alexander, Davies, et al., in press; Alexander, Druker, & Langer, in press; Csikszentmihalyi, 1982; Hilgard, 1980; Hunt, 1989; Kramer, in press; Pascual-Leone, in press-a, in press-b; Pribram, 1986; Shapiro & Walsh, 1984; Wilber, Engler, & Brown, 1986). James (1902/1960, p. 386) suggested that exceptional states could be systematically cultivated, and he pointed to the ancient Indian tradition of yoga as a source of such practices. He thus anticipated a promising research area: the experimental investigation of meditation and associated psychophysiological changes. In 1957 Maharishi Mahesh Yogi introduced Transcendental Meditation (TM) as a simple mental technique derived from the Vedic tradition of India (Maharishi, 1963, 1969; 1972a). He proposed that through this procedure [Editors Note: See discussion by Charles Alexander in the Lucid Dreaming and Higher States of Consciousness Panel Discussion for a brief explanation of the procedure], a "fourth major state of consciousness" can be regularly experienced. This fourth state is referred to in Maharishi's Vedic psychology as transcendental consciousness (Maharishi, 1969; Orme-Johnson, 1988) because it is said to transcend or be discontinuous with the three ordinary states of waking, dreaming, and sleep, as typically described conceptually and psychophysiologically (e.g., see Natsoulas's sixth definition of "normal" waking consciousness: 1983, p. 49; see also, Gackenbach, 1987; Rechtschaffen & Kales, 1968).