Browsing by Author "Zutter, Cynthia"
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ItemComparing Norse animal husbandry practices: paleoethnobotanical analyses from Iceland and Greenland(2007) Ross, Julie; Zutter, CynthiaThe popular view of the Norse settlement across the North Atlantic describes colonies with similar subsistence practices being established from the Faroe Islands in the west to L'Anse aux Meadows in the east. The importance of plant resources to the Norse animal husbandry strategies implemented by settlers upon arrival are not well established, nor are the changes these strategies underwent, eventually resulting in different cultural solutions to varying environmental and social factors. This paper compares archaeobotanical samples from two Icelandic archaeological sites, Svalbarð and Gjögur, and one Greenlandic site, Gården Under Sandet (GUS). Results of this comparison suggest that heathland shrubs were an important fodder resource for caprines in both Iceland and Greenland while apophytes ('weedy taxa') were part of the cattle fodder in Greenland. Further, the results indicate that mucking out of cattle barns to provide fertilizer was likely practiced at the GUS site in the Western Norse settlement of Greenland. ItemCongruence of concordance in archaeobotany: assessing micro- and macro-botanical data sets from Icelandic middens(1999) Zutter, CynthiaArchaeological farm middens dating from the Viking Age to early modern times are found throughout the North Atlantic region and contribute information regarding past ecological and economic conditions. Archaeobotanical investigations of two Icelandic farm midden sites are interpreted for plant-use trends in this northern pastoral economic system. Macro-botanical (i.e., seeds, leaves) and micro-botanical (i.e., pollen) remains are compared in order to assess the degree of congruence between these differing data sets. The background signature of macro- and micro-botanical variability in Icelandic pastoral practices is established through the analysis of present-day farmyard contexts for the assessment of differing archaeobotanical remains. Results indicate micro- and macro-botanical remains from Icelandic archaeological sites are not congruent since plants and plant parts are differentially collected and utilized by humans and these patterns of plant-use will effect whether or not micro- or macro-remnants are incorporated into the archaeological record. ItemMentoring adjunct professors: fostering bonds that strengthen teaching and learning(2007) Zutter, CynthiaThe number of part–time faculty members is increasing steadily, to the point that most colleges and universities could not function efficiently without them. The evening and weekend availability of adjunct faculty enables us to expand class schedules to serve the educational needs of nontraditional students, and their expertise offers students important real–world perspectives.Yet there is often a lack of preparation or support for their vital role. Best Practices for Supporting Adjunct Faculty is written for a full range of academic leaders, including instructional administrators, department chairs, and directors of teaching and learning centers. It showcases proven initiatives at a variety of institutional types two– and four year, public and private that help achieve the needs of adjunct instructors, while increasing their effectiveness within institutions existing delivery systems. This book provides research data on the initiatives highlighted, and valuable ideas for institutions expanding their professional development opportunities for part–time instructors thus enhancing student learning and improving accountability outcomes. ItemPaleoethnobotanical contributions to 18th century Inuit economy: an example from Uivak, Labrador(2009) Zutter, CynthiaOnly a small number of archaeological research projects have investigated the interaction between the Inuit and their use of plants as part of their economy. The research presented here provides a robust illustration of the potential that archaeobotanical analysis can bring to arctic archaeology. As part of a larger multidisciplinary archaeological investigation at Uivak 1 site (HjCl-11), northern Labrador, archaeobotanical samples were recovered from multiple of contexts within the site. Results suggest that a variety of plant taxa in significant quantities were recovered from all contexts of the site. Of note are the ubiquitous berry seeds recovered throughout site, suggesting that berries were an important aspect of 18th century Inuit life-ways. ItemPredicting North American Late Pleistocene archaeology using an optimal foraging model(1989) Zutter, CynthiaThis study outlines an alternative method for increasing the Late Pleistocene archaeological record in North America. An optimal foraging model is formulated based on reconstructed biomass quantities for the vegetation and fauna of the Ice-free corridor region of western Canada. The most productive areas during the Late Pleistocene are assumed to be the most probably locations for human settlements and archaeological sites. ItemReconstructing historic Labrador Inuit plant use: an exploratory phytolith analysis of soapstone-vessel residues(2014) Pigford, Ashlee Ann; Zutter, CynthiaPhytoliths (microscopic silica plant remains) found in a variety of archaeological contexts offer insight into reconstructing past ecology and human behavior. We present an exploratory phytolith study on residues from soapstone fragments retrieved from the 18th-century Labrador Inuit winter site Dog Island-Oakes Bay I, Labrador (HeCg-08). Phytoliths were extracted from residues and identified using a phytolith reference collection developed from ten contemporary Labrador plants and two European imports. Recovered phytoliths suggest that imported cereals (Avena sp., Secale sp.), local edible berries, medicinal and tea plants (Empetrum nigrum, Epilobium latifolium, Ledum decumbens, Salix sp., Picea sp., Rubus chamaemorus, and Vaccinium sp.) were present in the residues. Our findings supplement recent palaeoethnobotanical research that suggests plants may have played a role in the subsistence practices of 18th-century Labrador Inuit. As a pioneering effort in the archaeology of Labrador Inuit, the successful recovery of phytoliths from our study encourages further phytolith investigations in this region. ItemThe shrubs in the forest: The use of woody species by 18th-century Labrador Inuit(2012) Zutter, CynthiaDespite low productivity rates and sparse tree cover in the circumpolar region, the Inuit identify woody plants and their products as important parts of their diet that provide essential nutrients and medicine. However, evidence of historic and prehistoric Inuit plant use is less well known. This article presents archaeobotanical research from two 18th-century Inuit sites in Northern Labrador. At both sites, abundant botanical remains were recovered, suggesting woody plants were consumed as food, used as medicines, and modified for many valuable purposes. These results are consistent with Inuit ethnobotanical studies, suggesting that woody plants contribute important elements to the Inuit economy today and have done so in the recent past. ItemWood and plant-use in 17th-19th century Iceland: archaeobotanical analysis of Reykholt, western Iceland(2000) Zutter, CynthiaAs part of a multidisciplinary investigation of post-medieval Icelandic land and plant use practices, archaeobotanical samples were collected from Reykholt, west Iceland in 1988 and 1989. Analyses included plant macrofossils (seeds and leaves) and wood identification from excavated rooms in a 17th century farm house. In conjunction with earlier palaeoentomological studies, the functions of three different excavated rooms are inferred. Archaeobotanical results suggest that the farm was a prosperous one, with imported foodstuffs and wood implements from continental Europe.