Browsing Department of Psychology by Subject "adult"
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- ItemDid Freud misinterpret reported memories of sexual abuse as fantasies?(1995) Powell, Russell A.; Boer, Douglas P.Argues that Freud may have misinterpreted real memories of sexual abuse as imaginary after his abandonment of the seduction theory. Certain theoretical statements by Freud, as well as his advice to Jung concerning a 6-yr-old girl who had accused her foster-father of sexual abuse, indicate that he may have been significantly biased toward interpreting certain types of incest allegations as fantasies. Increased awareness of Freud's biases, both in his early tendency to pressure patients into believing that they were victims of abuse and in his later tendency to regard certain types of incest allegations as unreal, may contribute to a more objective approach to the diagnosis and treatment of sexual abuse in the future.
- ItemDid Freud mislead patients to confabulate memories of abuse? a reply to Gleaves and Hernandez(1994) Powell, Russell A. ; Boer, Douglas P.Claims that Sigmund Freud had often used highly suggestive procedures to elicit the memories of childhood seductions from his patients and had not considered alternative explanations for the evidence he presented when first claiming that recovered memories of sexual abuse were real. Freud's abandonment of seduction theory within a year of first proposing it.
- ItemDissociative identity disorder and the sociocognitive model: recalling the lessons of the past(1999) Lilienfeld, S. O.; Kirsch, I.; Sarbin, T. R.; Lynn, S. J.; Chaves, J. F.; Ganaway, G. K.; Powell, Russell A.In a recent article in this journal, D. H. Gleaves (1996; see record 1996-01403-003 ) criticized the sociocognitive model (SCM; N. P. Spanos, 1994) of dissociative identity disorder (DID) and argued in favor of a posttraumatic model (PTM) in which DID is conceptualized as a consequence of childhood abuse and other traumatic events. The present authors demonstrate that (a) many of Gleaves's arguments were predicated on misunderstandings of the SCM, (b) scrutiny of the evidence regarding the psychopathology and assessment of DID raises questions concerning the PIM's conceptual and empirical underpinnings, (c) the treatment literature suggests that iatrogenic factors play an important role in the etiology of DID, and (d) the evidence linking child abuse to DID is more problematic than implied by Gleaves. The present authors conclude that Gleaves's analysis underemphasized the cultural manifestations of multiple role enactments and that the history of DID imparts a valuable lesson to contemporary psychotherapists.
- ItemTemporal delays in incorporation of events into dreams(1995) Powell, Russell A.; Nielsen, Tore A.; Cheung, Jennifer S.; Cervenka, Thomas M.Investigated the systematic resurgence in the incorporation of a daytime event into dreams following a period of several days, i.e., the 'dream-lag' effect. 10 male and 10 female Ss (aged 20–52 yrs) were shown a 30-min videotape depicting a ceremonial water buffalo slaughter by Naji villagers in Indonesia. Ss were instructed to write down their dreams for the next 7 nights. Two judges independently rated each report on a scale of 0–20, for the likelihood that some aspect of the videotape had been incorporated. Results provide evidence for the dream-lag effect. An initial tendency to incorporate, was followed by a decrease, and then a resurgence toward the end of the 1-wk period. This pattern was found only for those Ss who showed strong evidence of incorporation. However, the results may have been confounded by the Ss' awareness that the content of the tape was expected to be incorporated in dreams.