Department of Psychology

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 333
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    The HEXACO model of personality: factors related to gossip & friendship
    (2022) Watson, David
    In this study, the relationship between gossip, friendship, and the HEXACO model of personality was investigated in a sample of 419 undergraduate participants with three different gossip questionnaires. The results confirmed the hypothesis that emotionality mediates the relationship between friendship and gossip with intimate friendship. With personality and gossip, honesty-humility was the strongest correlate of gossip in a negative direction. The HEXACO facet of sentimentality was found to be a significant indirect mediator of the gossip-friendship relationship rather than the withdrawal facet. With regard to motivation and the tendency to gossip, the subscale-level predictors had a negative relationship with sincerity and fairness. With gossip functions, greed avoidance, sincerity, and modesty were the negatively related predictors. In addition, some sex differences were noted in the relationship between friendship and gossip. Overall gossip scale scores, and the social information and physical appearance gossip subscale scores were correlated with friendship intimacy with females. Achievement gossip was negatively related to friendship intimacy with males. The information function and social motive to gossip were associated with male friendship intimacy. The findings add to the understanding of the relationship between friendship and gossip in terms of personality factors, different elements of gossip, and aspects of friendship. These findings could be used to help individuals deepen the understanding of their friendships and enhance the quality and level of intimacy in these relationships. Particularly useful are the findings that sentimentality rather than withdrawal was related to friendship and gossip.
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    A juggler's manifesto: elevating creativity to stay productive amid uncertainty
    (2023) Enstroem, Rickard; Schmaltz, Rodney
    Purpose The Industry 4.0 environment is characterized by fast data, vertically and horizontally interconnected systems, and human–machine interfaces. In the middle stands the manager, whose sustained performance is critical to the organization's success. Business disturbances—such as supply chain disruptions during the pandemic—can quickly test the manager's resiliency. While creativity and flexibility are critical for success in these situations, these skills are often not promoted directly. This paper will discuss strategies for enhancing managers' creativity and resiliency and give suggestions for improving professional development training and post-secondary business education. Design/methodology/approach A synthesis of the literature in business and psychology provides a foundation for creating a conceptual model incorporating strategies to promote managerial creativity and resiliency. While the model focuses on managerial performance under adverse conditions, the tenets of the model also apply during times of relative stability. Findings Findings based on a synthesis of the literature on creativity in business and psychology provide the foundation for a conceptual model to identify potential elements in training and curriculum design to further managers' creativity and resiliency. This model recommends clear, actionable training and program-level curriculum design suggestions for improved managerial performance. Originality/value This paper identifies a conceptual model to enhance managerial creativity leading to increased resiliency through professional development programs and suggestions for educators in post-secondary business education. This model provides tools for managers to deal with adverse and rapidly changing conditions flexibly, promoting employee productivity and satisfaction.
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    Effects of ocean acidification on dopamine-mediated behavioral responses of a coral reef damselfish
    (2023) Hamilton, Trevor; Tresguerres, Martin; Kwan, Garfield T.; Szaszkiewicz, Joshua; Franczak, Brian C.; Cyronak, Tyler; Andersson, Andreas J.; Kline, David I.
    We investigated whether CO2-induced ocean acidification (OA) affects dopamine receptor-dependent behavior in bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus). Damselfish were kept in aquaria receiving flow through control (pH ~ 8.03; pCO2 ~ 384 μatm) or OA (pH ~ 7.64; CO2 ~ 1100 μatm) seawater at a rate of 1 L min−1. Despite this relatively fast flow rate, fish respiration further acidified the seawater in both control (pH ~7.88; pCO2 ~ 595 μatm) and OA (pH ~7.55; pCO2 ~ 1450 μatm) fish-holding aquaria. After five days of exposure, damselfish locomotion, boldness, anxiety, and aggression were assessed using a battery of behavioral tests using automated video analysis. Two days later, these tests were repeated following application of the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393. OA-exposure induced ceiling anxiety levels that were significantly higher than in control damselfish, and SKF 38393 increased anxiety in control damselfish to a level not significantly different than that of OA-exposed damselfish. Additionally, SKF 38393 decreased locomotion and increased boldness in control damselfish but had no effect in OA-exposed damselfish, suggesting an alteration in activity of dopaminergic pathways that regulate behavior under OA conditions. These results indicate that changes in dopamine D1 receptor function affects fish behavior during exposure to OA. However, subsequent measurements of seawater sampled using syringes during the daytime (~3–4 pm local time) from crevasses in coral reef colonies, which are used as shelter by damselfish, revealed an average pH of 7.73 ± 0.03 and pCO2 of 925.8 ± 62.2 μatm; levels which are comparable to Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 predicted end-of-century mean OA levels in the open ocean. Further studies considering the immediate environmental conditions experienced by fish as well as individual variability and effect size are required to understand potential implications of the observed OA-induced behavioral effects on damselfish fitness in the wild.
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    Zebrafish (danio rerio) shoaling in light and dark conditions involves a complex interplay between vision and lateral line
    (2023) Chaput, Shayna; Burggren, Warren; Hurd, Peter L.; Hamilton, Trevor
    We know little about how - or even if in some species – fish shoal in darkness. We hypothesized that ‘dark shoaling’ occurs in zebrafish and therefore must depend upon lateral line sensory input. Shoaling in groups of five adult zebrafish was analyzed with motion tracking software. We measured average inter-individual distance, time near the arena wall (thigmotaxis zone) and total distance traveled under normal room light, and in near-complete darkness (infrared light at 850 nm). These observations were repeated in fish treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl2), which ablates lateral line function. In untreated controls, dark shoaling was reduced compared to in light, but nonetheless still present. Elimination of lateral line sensory input by CoCl2 treatment similarly reduced, but did not eliminate, shoaling under both light and dark. Our findings indicate that normal zebrafish shoaling in light or dark requires both visual and lateral line inputs, with neither alone sufficient for normal shoaling.
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    Continuous light (relative to a 12:12 photoperiod) has no effect on anxiety-like behaviour, boldness, and locomotion in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) post-smolts in recirculating aquaculture systems at a salinity of either 2.5 or 10 ppt
    (2022) Hamilton, Trevor; Szaszkiewicz, Joshua; Krook, Jeffrey T.; Richards, Jeffrey G.; Stiller, Kevin; Brauner, Colin J.
    There is increased interest in rearing salmon in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS), where environmental conditions can be tightly controlled to optimize growth. Photoperiod and salinity are two important parameters that can be manipulated in RAS. A longer photoperiod permits more time for feeding, while intermediate salinities may reduce the energetic costs of ionoregulation, both of which may enhance growth. However, little is known about how rearing at different photoperiods and salinity affect behaviour, an understudied but important research topic for intensive fish rearing. To address this, we examined the behavioural effects of two salinities and two photoperiod regimes in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) post-smolts reared continuously for 120 days in a RAS. Fish were reared on a photoperiod of either 12 h light:12 h dark (12:12), or 24 h light (24:0) at salinities of 2.5 and 10 ppt. To investigate behavioural differences associated with these treatments, we quantified: i) movement in an open-field test, ii) exploratory behaviour/boldness using a novel object approach test, and iii) anxiety-like behaviour with a light/dark test. The 24:0 groups displayed no differences in boldness/anxiety-like behaviour and locomotion relative to the 12:12 groups at their respective salinities. Taken together, fish reared under continuous light (24:0) show negligible behavioural alterations compared to fish reared under normal light dark conditions (12:12).