Interpretation of reflectance spectra of clay mineral-silica mixtures: implications for Martian clay mineralogy at Mawrth Vallis
CRISM, Mars, Mawrth Vallis, spectroscopy
The Al-clay-rich rock units at Mawrth Vallis, Mars, have been identified as mixtures of multiple components based on their spectral reflectance properties and the known spectral character of pure clay minerals. In particular, the spectral characteristics associated with the approximately 2.2 mu m feature in Martian reflectance spectra indicate that mixtures of AlOH- and SiOH-bearing minerals are present. The present study investigated the spectral reflectance properties of the following binary mixtures to aid in the interpretation of remotely acquired reflectance spectra of rocks at Mawrth Vallis: kaolinite-opal-A, kaolinite-montmorillonite, montmorillonite-obsidian, montmorillonite-hydrated silica (opal), and glass-illite-smectite (where glass was hydrothermally altered to mixed-layer illite-smectite). The best spectral matches with Martian data from the present study's laboratory experiments are mixtures of montmorillonite and obsidian having approximately 50% montmorillonite or mixtures of kaolinite and montmorillonite with approximately 30% kaolinite. For both of these mixtures the maximum inflection point on the long wavelength side of the 2.21 mu m absorption feature is shifted to longer wavelengths, and in the case of the kaolinite-montmorillonite mixtures the 2.17 mu m absorption found in kaolinite is of similar relative magnitude to that feature as observed in CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) data. The reflectance spectra of clay mixed with opal and of hydrothermally altered glass-illite-smectite did not represent the Martian spectra observed in this region as well. A spectral comparison of linear vs. intimate mixtures of kaolinite and montmorillonite indicated that for these sieved samples the intimate mixtures are very similar to the linear mixtures with the exception of the altered glass-illite-smectite samples. However, the 2.17 mu m kaolinite absorption is stronger in the intimate mixtures than in the equivalent linear mixture. Modified Gaussian modeling of absorption features observed in reflectance spectra of the kaolinite-montmorillonite mixtures indicated a strong correlation between percent kaolinite in the mixture and the ratio of the area of the 2.16 mu m band found in kaolinite to the area of the 2.20 mu m band found in montmorillonite.
McKeown, N. K., Bishop, J. L., Amador, E., Cuadros, J., Hillier, S., Makarewicz, H. D., Parente, M., & Silver, E. A. (2011). Interpretation of reflectance spectra of clay mineral-silica mixtures: implications for Martian clay mineralogy at Mawrth Vallis. Clays and Clay Minerals, 59(4), 400-415. doi: 10.1346/CCMN.2011.0590404.
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