Polymer hydrogel interfaces in electrochemical sensing strategies: a review
polymer hydrogel, electrochemical sensor, biosensor, nanocomposites, biomolecules, amperometry, voltammetry
Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymeric networks prepared by physical or chemical cross-linking of gelator molecules under optimum conditions. Being sensitive to external stimuli, hydrogels are integrated into signal transduction systems for generating possible responses upon interaction with target analytes to study various physiochemical/biochemical molecular recognition processes. In recent times, polymer based hydrogel materials have emerged as unique electrode modifying materials providing highly permeable matrix for easy diffusion of analytes and rapid electron transport. Polymeric architectures of hydrogels can accommodate different nanomaterials within its matrix through suitable interactions to form hydrogel nanocomposites. Further, high biocompatibility of hydrogels facilitates facile encapsulation and cross-linking of bioreceptors (eg. nucleic acid, protein) into polymer matrix and helps to retain their bioactivity during practical applications. Polymer hydrogel materials enable easy prototyping of electrodes using novel printing technologies for designing next generation advanced, flexible and portable bioelectronics with excellent sensing performances. The present article focuses on the implication of polymer hydrogels as high performance electrode materials. Taking relevant examples, nanomaterials incorporated polymer hydrogel based chemical sensors and bioreceptors embedded biosensors have been discussed for electrochemical detection of different analytes. Preparation of hydrogel modified electrodes and state-of-the-art sensing mechanisms have been briefly emphasized. Concluding remarks and future prospects regarding fabrication of hydrogel based smart electronics have been provided at the end.
Dhanjai, Sinha, A., Kalambate, P. K., Mugo, S. M., Kamau, P., Chen, J., & Jain, R. (n.d.). Polymer hydrogel interfaces in electrochemical sensing strategies: a review. TRAC-TRENDS IN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, 118, 488–501. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2019.06.014
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