Presence in video game play and nighttime dreams: an empirical inquiry
presence, video games, virtual reality, dreams, dream aggression, fidelity, interactivity
A felt sense of presence in games versus dreams was measured by a self-report inventory applied immediately after playing an immersive video game for 20-25 min (a single session) and immediately after waking up (from a dream, at home, for 14 days after the game session). After prescreening, 40 subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups to play a video game. These groups differed in terms of the fidelity (VR type goggles versus TV monitor) and interactivity (playing versus watching). 117 usable dream reports were collected. The results of ANCOVA over the whole data did not give significant effects, but in item-by-item testing, four of 12 items showed significant dream/game presence differences. Three were in the direction of dreams eliciting a stronger sense of presence than games and one in the opposite direction. In a further content analysis, the dream presence was found to be related to dream aggression.
Gackenbach, J.I. & Rosie, M. (2011). Presence in video game play and nighttime dreams: an empirical inquiry. International Journal of Dream Research, 4(2), 98-109. doi: 10.11588/ijodr.2011.2.9059
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