Browsing by Author "Ennis, Liam"
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- ItemAn evaluation of the reliability, construct validity, and factor structure of the static-2002R(2015) Jung, Sandy; Ennis, Liam; Hermann, Chantal A.; Pham, Anna; Choy, Alberto L.; Corabian, Gabriela; Hook, Tarah; Jung, SandyThe fundamental psychometric properties of the subscales found in the Static-2002R, an actuarial measure of sexual recidivism risk, were evaluated in the current study. Namely, the reliability, concurrent and construct validity, and factor structure of the Static-2002R subscales were examined with a sample of 372 adult male sex offenders. In addition to using validated measures of sexual violence risk to examine concurrent validity, construct-related measures taken from extant risk measures and psychometric tests were correlated with three of the subscales to assess overall construct validity. Moderate support was found for the reliability of the Static-2002R. The concurrent and construct validity of the General Criminality, Persistence of Sexual Offending, and Deviant Sexual Interest subscales were supported. Generally, these findings further support the Static-2002R as a valid sex offender risk appraisal instrument that encompasses multiple distinct, clinically relevant, risk domains.
- ItemChild pornography offending seen through three theoretical lenses(2012) Jung, Sandy; Ennis, Liam; Malesky, L. AlvinUnderstanding the complex issues surrounding child pornography offending is still in its infancy, and questions regarding the etiological underpinnings of sexually deviant interests and behaviors for these offenders remain both salient and unanswered. This article considers these questions through the lenses of three psychological theories of behavior: (1) social learning theory, (2) courtship disorder theory, and (3) behavioral economics. The development and maintenance of child pornography offending, as well as the potential for off-line escalation of those behaviors, from each theoretical perspective is discussed and the implications for theoretically grounded clinical practice is explored.
- ItemChild pornography possessors: comparisons and contrasts with contact- and non-contact sex offenders(2013) Jung, Sandy; Ennis, Liam; Stein, Shayla; Choy, Alberto L.; Hook, Tarah; Jung, SandyThe advent of the Internet has facilitated a dramatic increase in the number of individuals accessing and possessing child pornography, and a corresponding increase in referrals for assessment and treatment. Questions remain regarding whether child pornography possessors are more similar to or different from other types of sex offenders, and whether or not assessment and treatment protocols for contact and non-contact sex offenders are appropriately applied to child porn offenders. The present study compared 50 child pornography offenders, 45 non-contact sex offenders, and 101 contact child molesters. Results indicated that the three groups were more similar than different; however, child pornography offenders were distinguished by greater academic and vocational achievement, fewer childhood behavior problems, and by select relational variables. Recidivism rates were low for all groups.
- ItemIdentifying male sexual offender subtypes using cluster analysis(2014) Jung, Sandy; Ennis, Liam; Buro, KarenThis study examines whether clinically meaningful subgroups could be identified within a large, undifferentiated group of convicted adult male sex offenders. Of eight cluster analyses, a reliable three-cluster solution emerged based on the subscores of the Static-2002R with 345 sex offenders. To establish the validity of the emergent clusters, the three groups of offenders were compared on four domains: Criminal history, psychosexual development, sexual attitudes and interests, and recidivism. The findings revealed meaningful differences among the group and the implications of subgroup membership is discussed in terms of risk, treatment, and supervision.
- ItemMeasuring the disparity of categorical risk among various sex offender risk assessment instruments(2013) Jung, Sandy; Pham, Anna; Ennis, Liam; Jung, SandyThe focus on reducing sexual offending has led to the development of risk assessment measures and schemes to predict reoffending, prioritize the allocation of treatment and supervision resources, and ensure public safety. However, different risk assessment approaches may not always have high agreement on the same individual. In light of the research indicating that ordinal risk rankings are most commonly used and reported in various risk communications, this study compares four risk assessment approaches, namely, the Static-99R, Static-2002R, SORAG, and SVR-20, in order to evaluate the disparities among the risk categories of these measures. The results indicate that there are disparities between all of the risk measures, but many of these can be explained by structural differences and common overlapping dimensions in the measures. Possible explanations for and implications of the discrepancies, along with some guidance on determining which approach to use, are discussed.
- ItemThe association between presentence risk evaluations and sentencing outcome(2015) Jung, Sandy; Ennis, Liam; Brown, Kelsey; Ledi, Denise; Jung, SandyPresentence risk evaluations are routinely submitted to judges prior to sentencing with the goal of guiding treatment recommendations and informing sentencing decisions. Empirical research has yet to examine this association. In the present study, the correspondence between presentence risk evaluations and sentencing outcomes was explored using the files of 165 offenders who had completed LSI-R, LS/CMI, and/or HCR-20 protocols. We found that sentencing outcome was associated with risk assessment scores, particularly from the Level of Service Measures. This study's findings suggest that presentence risk evaluations have a strong association with the sentencing decisions of the judiciary, suggesting that sentencing procedures may reflect evidence-based practice.
- ItemThe integrated threat and risk assessment centre: A program evaluation investigating the implementation of threat management recommendations(2015) Ennis, Liam; Hargreaves, Terren; Gulayets, MichaelThe goal of threat assessment is violence prevention, and threat assessors endeavor to provide risk management recommendations that are practical, useful, and effective. However, the best laid threat management plans inevitably fail if they are never implemented. The current study focused on the Integrated Threat and Risk Assessment Centre (I-TRAC), a specialized unit that provides threat management consultation to police and social services. Survey and interview data were collected from I-TRAC stakeholders to investigate which case management recommendations tend to be implemented by those responsible for managing risk, and to inform our understanding of why other recommendations are disregarded. Results indicated that respondents valued threat assessment and management consultations provided by I-TRAC, and implemented most recommendations provided to them. Common reasons for not implementing risk management recommendations were identified, and recommendations for improving the collaborative process of threat management are discussed.