Browsing by Author "Hollis, Cathy"
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- ItemA geocellular modelling workflow for partially dolomitized remobilized carbonates: an example from the Hammam Faraun Fault block, Gulf of Suez, Egypt(2021) Corlett, Hilary; Hodgetts, David; Hirani, Jesal; Rotevatn, Atle; Taylor, Rochelle; Hollis, CathyConstructing geocellular models of carbonate rocks using standard software is challenging since most of modelling packages are designed, first and foremost, to represent siliciclastic depositional systems, where rock properties are strongly facies-controlled. The distribution and components of carbonate depositional facies vary drastically across the geological timescale as a result of paleoclimate and its effects on carbonate-producing biota. Furthermore, reservoir architecture is less strongly controlled by depositional environment than in clastic settings, and rock physical properties, including fracture networks, are controlled by both primary components and their subsequent diagenetic alteration. This means that rock property distribution is less predictable than in siliciclastic systems, and less well represented by geocellular models that are designed to represent sedimentary architecture. In other words, in carbonate systems, the depositional and diagenetic history needs to be reconstructed in order to successfully model reservoir properties. In this study a geocellular model was created by using a well-characterised outcrop analogue obtained from the Hammam Faraun Fault (HFF) Block, located on the eastern coast of the Gulf of Suez in Sinai, Egypt. This model integrates sedimentological, petrophysical, diagenetic, and structural information into a single database. The workflow utilizes the regional tectonic history, upscaled lithological logs, and two-stage facies modelling (reflecting in and ex situ depositional facies) and resulted in the creation a realistic model of remobilized carbonates that were deposited on the slope of a carbonate platform during a period of tectonic instability. Diagenetic overprinting was achieved using probability functions to reflect the history of burial, rifting, and the spatial relationship of stratabound and non-stratabound dolostone bodies. The study demonstrates a workflow for modelling mass-transport carbonate facies and multistage fault-related diagenesis so that flow controlling facies and diagenetically altered poroperm and fracture networks are accurately represented using commercially available modelling software, and in particular demonstrates how diagenetically controlled geobodies can be captured using simple algorithms.
- ItemAn overview of structurally-controlled dolostone-limestone transitions in the stratigraphic record(2021) Koeshidayatullah, Ardiansyah; Corlett, Hilary; Hollis, CathyIn structurally-controlled dolomitization systems, there is a general consensus that the formation of dolostone-limestone transitions, termed here as “dolomitization fronts”, is governed by either the presence of an ultra-low permeability zone (fluid barrier) or changes in dolomitization potential and kinetics. However, the actual processes controlling the abrupt termination of dolostone bodies, and their corresponding morphology and dimension, are still relatively poorly understood. To address these challenges, we aim to (i) review the different origin and styles of structurally-controlled dolomitization fronts in the stratigraphic record and (ii) provide a standardized framework and quantitative insight to describe and interpret dolomitization fronts. To achieve this, field observations across geologic timescales and geodynamic settings are complimented with published data to document different styles of structurally-controlled dolomitization fronts. The results show that the following morphologies are associated with both tabular and columnar dolostone bodies: (i) lateral contact/bed-perpendicular fronts; (ii) vertical contact/bed-parallel fronts; and (iii) complex-shaped fronts at the distal part of dolostone bodies. This morphological information, when coupled with detailed petrography, mineralogical and geochemical data could help to accurately reveal the governing processes behind the termination of dolostone bodies and their corresponding reaction front geometries. Our review shows that the first front type is primarily controlled by the interplay between intrinsic properties of the host rocks, dolomitizing fluids, and self-organization process. In contrast, the second front type is governed by the presence of laterally continuous depositional, diagenetic, or structural fluid barriers, creating a significant permeability contrast across beds. The formation of complex-shaped fronts is interpreted to be controlled by a combination of original lithological composition and kinetics. This overview provides the first multi-study categorisation of ancient dolomitization fronts and the controls on their formation at a range of scales. This improves our understanding of low temperature metasomatic processes, and their termination, in sedimentary systems. Furthermore, it highlights how accurate interpretation of the origin and styles of dolomitization fronts can improve our understanding of dolomitization processes, paleofluid flow, and distribution of economic resources in dolomitized carbonate platforms, which can be challenging to determine from the dolostone bodies themselves, where they have undergone multiple phases of recrystallization and diagenetic overprinting.
- ItemBasin scale evolution of zebra textures in fault-controlled, hydrothermal dolomite bodies: insights from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin(2023) McCormick, Cole A.; Corlett, Hilary; Clog, Matthieu; Boyce, Adrian; Tartèse, Romain; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Hollis, CathyStructurally controlled dolomitization typically involves the interaction of high-pressure (P), high-temperature (T) fluids with the surrounding host rock. Such reactions are often accompanied by cementation and recrystallization, with the resulting hydrothermal dolomite (HTD) bodies including several ‘diagnostic’ rock textures. Zebra textures, associated with boxwork textures and dolomite breccias, are widely considered to reflect these elevated P/T conditions. Although a range of conceptual models have been proposed to explain the genesis of these rock textures, the processes that control their spatial and temporal evolution are still poorly understood. Through the detailed petrographical and geochemical analysis of HTD bodies, hosted in the Middle Cambrian strata in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, this study demonstrates that a single genetic model cannot be applied to all the characteristics of these rock textures. Instead, a wide array of sedimentological, tectonic and metasomatic processes contribute to their formation; each of which is spatially and temporally variable at the basin scale. Distal to the fluid source, dolomitization is largely stratabound, comprising replacement dolomite, bedding-parallel zebra textures and rare dolomite breccias (non-stratabound, located only proximal to faults). Dolomitization is increasingly non-stratabound with proximity to the fluid source, comprising bedding-inclined zebra textures, boxwork textures and dolomite breccias that have been affected by recrystallization. Petrographical and geochemical evidence suggests that these rock textures were initiated due to dilatational fracturing, brecciation and precipitation of saddle dolomite as a cement, but significant recrystallization occurred during the later stages of dolomitization. These rock textures are closely associated with faults and carbonate-hosted ore deposits (e.g. magnesite, rare earth element and Mississippi Valley–type mineralization), thus providing invaluable information regarding fluid flux and carbonate metasomatism under elevated P/T conditions.
- ItemBurial dolomitization driven by modified seawater and basal aquifer-sourced brines: Insights from the Middle and Upper Devonian of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin(2020) Stacey, Jack; Hollis, Cathy; Corlett, Hilary; Koeshidayatullah, ArdiansyahDolomitization in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin has been extensively researched, producing vast geochemical datasets. This provides a unique opportunity to assess the regional sources and flux of dolomitizing fluids on a larger scale than previous studies. A meta-analysis was conducted on stable isotope, strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr), fluid inclusion and lithium-rich formation water data published over 30 years, with new petrographic, X-ray diffraction, stable isotope and rare-earth element (REE+Y) data. The Middle to Upper Devonian Swan Hills Formation, Leduc Formation and Wabamun Group contain replacement dolomite (RD) cross-cut by stylolites, suggesting replacement dolomitization occurred during shallow burial. Stable isotope, REE+Y and 87Sr/86Sr data indicate RD formed from Devonian seawater, then recrystallized during burial. Apart from the Wabamun Group of the Peace River Arch (PRA), saddle dolomite cement (SDC) is more δ18O(PDB) depleted than RD, and cross-cuts stylolites, suggesting precipitation during deep burial. SDC 87Sr/86Sr data indicate contributions from 87Sr-rich basinal brines in the West Shale Basin (WSB) and PRA, and authigenic quartz/albite suggests basinal brines interacted with underlying clastic aquifers before ascending faults into carbonate strata. The absence of quartz/albite within dolomites of the East Shale Basin (ESB) suggests dolomitizing fluids only interacted with carbonate strata. We conclude that replacement dolomitization resulted from connate Devonian seawater circulating through aquifers and faults during shallow burial. SDC precipitated during deep burial from basinal brines sourced from basal carbonates (ESB) and clastic aquifers (WSB, PRA). Lithium-rich formation waters suggest basinal brines originated as residual evapo-concentrated Middle Devonian seawater that interacted with basal aquifers and ascended faults during the Antler and Laramide Orogenies. These results corroborate those of previous studies but are verified by new integrated analysis of multiple datasets. New insights emphasize the importance of basal aquifers and residual evapo-concentrated seawater in dolomitization, which is potentially applicable to other regionally dolomitized basins.
- ItemControls on the formation of stratabound dolostone bodies, Hammam Faraun Fault block, Gulf of Suez(2018) Hirani, Jesal; Bastesen, Eivind; Boyce, Adrian; Corlett, Hilary; Gawthorpe, Rob; Hollis, Cathy; Cédric, John M.; Robertson, Hamish; Rotevatn, Atle; Whitaker, FionaDolomitization is commonly associated with crustal-scale faults, but tectonic rejuvenation, diagenetic overprinting and a fluid and Mg mass-imbalance often makes it difficult to determine the dolomitization mechanism. This study considers differential dolomitization of the Eocene Thebes Formation on the Hammam Faraun Fault block, Gulf of Suez, which has undergone a simple history of burial and exhumation as a result of rifting. Stratabound dolostone bodies occur selectively within remobilized sediments (debrites and turbidites) in the lower Thebes Formation and extend into the footwall of, and for up to 2 km away from, the Hammam Faraun Fault. They are offset by the north-south trending Gebel fault, which was active during the earliest phases of rifting, suggesting that dolomitization occurred between rift initiation (26 Ma) and rift climax (15 Ma). Geochemical data suggest that dolomitization occurred from evaporated (ca 1.43 concentration) seawater at less than ca 80 degrees C. Geothermal convection is interpreted to have occurred as seawater was drawn down surface-breaching faults into the Nubian sandstone aquifer, convected and discharged into the lower Thebes Formation via the Hammam Faraun Fault. Assuming a ca 10 Myr window for dolomitization, a horizontal velocity of ca 0.7 m year (super -1) into the Thebes Formation is calculated, with fluid flux and reactivity likely to have been facilitated by fracturing. Although fluids were at least marginally hydrothermal, stratabound dolostone bodies do not contain saddle dolomite and there is no evidence of hydrobrecciation. This highlights how misleading dolostone textures can be as a proxy for the genesis and spatial distribution of such bodies in the subsurface. Overall, this study provides an excellent example of how fluid flux may occur during the earliest phases of rifting, and the importance of crustal-scale faults on fluid flow from the onset of their growth. Furthermore, this article presents a mechanism for dolomitization from seawater that has none of the inherent mass balance problems of classical, conceptual models of hydrothermal dolomitization.
- ItemEvaluating new fault-controlled hydrothermal dolomitization models: insights from the Cambrian Dolomite, Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin(2020) Koeshidayatullah, Ardiansyah; Corlett, Hilary; Stacey, Jack; Swart, Peter K.; Boyce, Adrian; Robertson, Hamish; Whitaker, Fiona; Hollis, CathyFault-controlled hydrothermal dolomitization in tectonically complex basins can occur at any depth and from different fluid compositions, including ‘deep-seated’, ‘crustal’ or ‘basinal’ brines. Nevertheless, many studies have failed to identify the actual source of these fluids, resulting in a gap in our knowledge on the likely source of magnesium of hydrothermal dolomitization. With development of new concepts in hydrothermal dolomitization, the study aims in particular to test the hypothesis that dolomitizing fluids were sourced from either seawater, ultramafic carbonation or a mixture between the two by utilizing the Cambrian Mount Whyte Formation as an example. Here, the large-scale dolostone bodies are fabric-destructive with a range of crystal fabrics, including euhedral replacement (RD1) and anhedral replacement (RD2). Since dolomite is cross-cut by low amplitude stylolites, dolomitization is interpreted to have occurred shortly after deposition, at a very shallow depth (<1 km). At this time, there would have been sufficient porosity in the mudstones for extensive dolomitization to occur, and the necessary high heat flows and faulting associated with Cambrian rifting to transfer hot brines into the near surface. While the δ18Owater and 87Sr/86Sr ratios values of RD1 are comparable with Cambrian seawater, RD2 shows higher values in both parameters. Therefore, although aspects of the fluid geochemistry are consistent with dolomitization from seawater, very high fluid temperature and salinity could be suggestive of mixing with another, hydrothermal fluid. The very hot temperature, positive Eu anomaly, enriched metal concentrations, and cogenetic relation with quartz could indicate that hot brines were at least partially sourced from ultramafic rocks, potentially as a result of interaction between the underlying Proterozoic serpentinites and CO2-rich fluids. This study highlights that large-scale hydrothermal dolostone bodies can form at shallow burial depths via mixing during fluid pulses, providing a potential explanation for the mass balance problem often associated with their genesis.
- ItemFault-controlled dolomitization in a rift basin(2017) Hollis, Cathy; Bastesen, Eivind; Boyce, Adrian; Corlett, Hilary; Gawthorpe, Rob; Hirani, Jesal; Rotevatn, Atle; Whitaker, FionaThere are numerous examples of fault-controlled, so-called hydrothermal dolomite (HTD), many of which host economic mineral deposits or hydrocarbons, but there remains a lack of consensus as to how they form. In particular, multiple phases of diagenetic overprinting can obscure geochemical fingerprints. Study of a Cenozoic succession with a relatively simple burial history here provides new insights into the development of differentially dolomitized beds. The Hammam Faraun fault (HFF) block within the Suez Rift, Egypt, hosts both massive and stratabound dolostone bodies. Non-fabric-selective massive dolostone is limited to the damage zone of the fault, while fabric-selective stratabound dolostone bodies penetrate nearly 2 km into the footwall. Oligo-Miocene seawater is interpreted to have been drawn down discrete faults into a deep aquifer and convected upwards along the HFF. Escape of fluids from the incipient HFF into the lower Thebes Formation led to differential, stratabound dolomitization. Once the HFF breached the surface, fluid circulation focused along the fault plane to form younger, massive dolostone bodies. This study provides a snapshot of dolomitization during the earliest phases of extension, unobscured by subsequent recrystallization and geochemical modification. Contrary to many models, stratabound dolomitization preceded non-stratabound dolomitization. Fluids were hydrothermal, but with little evidence for rapid cooling and brecciation common to many HTD bodies. These results suggest that many of the features used to interpret and predict the geometry of HTD in the subsurface form during later phases of structural deformation, perhaps overprinting less structurally complex dolomite bodies.
- ItemOrigin and evolution of fault-controlled hydrothermal dolomitization fronts: a new insight(2020) Koeshidayatullah, Ardiansyah; Corlett, Hilary; Stacey, Jack; Swart, Peter K.; Boyce, Adrian; Hollis, CathyDolomitization is one of the most significant diagenetic reactions in carbonate systems, occurring where limestone (CaCO3) is replaced by dolomite (CaMg (CO3)2) under a wide range of crystallization temperatures and fluids. The processes governing its formation have been well studied, but the controls on the position of dolomitization fronts in ancient natural settings, particularly in a fault-controlled hydrothermal system (HTD), have received remarkably little attention. Hence, the origin and evolution of HTD dolomitization fronts in the stratigraphic record remain enigmatic. Here, a new set of mineralogical and geochemical data collected from different transects in a partially dolomitized Cambrian carbonate platform in western Canada are presented to address this issue. Systematic patterns of sudden decrease in the magnesium content (mol% MgCO3) and increase in porosity were observed towards the margin of the body. Furthermore, fluid temperatures are cooler and Owater values are less positive at the dolomitization front than within the core of the body. These changes coincide with a change from poorly ordered, planar-e dolomite with multiple crystal zonations at the margin, to an unzoned, well-ordered, interlocking mosaic of planar-s to nonplanar dolomite in the core of the body. These phenomena are hypothesized to reflect dynamic, self-limiting processes in the formation and evolution of HTD dolomitization fronts through (i) plummet of dolomitization potential at the head of dolomitizing fluids due to progressive consumption of magnesium and fluid cooling; and (ii) retreat of dolomitization fronts towards the fluid source during subsequent recrystallization of the dolomite body, inboard of the termination, once overdolomitization took place. This new insight illustrates how dolomitization fronts can record the oldest phase of dolomitization, instead of the youngest as is often assumed. Formation of porosity is interpreted to occur as the result of acidification-induced grain leaching during the development of dolomitization fronts. This mechanism, coupled with retrogradation of dolomitization fronts, may help to explain the apparent enhancement of porosity in proximity to dolomitization fronts.
- ItemOrigin, dimensions, and distribution of remobilized carbonate deposits in a tectonically active zone, Eocene Thebes Formation, Sinai, Egypt(2018) Corlett, Hilary; Bastesen, Eivind; Gawthorpe, Rob; Hirani, Jesal; Hodgetts, David; Hollis, Cathy; Rotevatn, AtleDetermination of the distribution and mechanism for carbonate-dominated mass transport sediments is often compromised by the scale and access to exposures. Consequently, many studies lack the resolution to capture the heterogeneity and dimensions of mass transport deposits. This study documents the size, shape, and stratal assemblage of remobilized carbonates in the Eocene Thebes Formation in the Hammam Faraun Fault Block (HFFB) of western Sinai, revealing the complexities of carbonate mass transport deposits at sub-seismic scale. Present day pseudo three-dimensional exposure of the Thebes Formation in a large fault block, formed during the opening of the Gulf of Suez, allowed for lateral and down-dip measurement of slope and basinal facies in the field and from photos. Remobilized facies were digitized in the photos and evaluated using image analysis software, a technique with a wide range of applications to outcrop studies of sedimentary architecture. Debris flow deposits in the lower section of the Thebes Formation comprises clasts with differing fossil assemblages. A relative sea level rise at the start of upper Thebes Formation deposition resulted in basinal sediments comprising periodic incursions of high-density turbidite grainstones encased within a background of planktonic foraminiferal wackestones. Foraminiferal assemblages of remobilized facies imply multiple sources on the carbonate platform, demonstrating the effect of short-lived tectonism on slope instability and deposition of mass transport deposits. The results of the study confirm that tectonism associated with the Syrian Arc Fold Belt, which altered the style of basin sedimentation between Egypt and Syria, persisted into the Eocene at least as far south as Wadi Araba in the western desert and Hammam Faraun in Sinai. In addition, the shape, size, and extent of the two dominant remobilized facies, debris flows and grainstone turbidites are influenced by their mud-rich versus grainy compositions.
- ItemQuantification of depositional and diagenetic geobody geometries for reservoir modelling, Hammam Fauran Fault Block, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt(2013) Hollis, Cathy; Corlett, Hilary; Hirani, Jesal; Hodgetts, David; Gawthorpe, Rob; Rotevatn, Atle; Bastesen, EivindOutcrop data has traditionally been used to constrain conceptual models during subsurface reservoir characterisation and geocellular modeling, but published data of depositional and diagenetic geobodies in carbonate systems is lacking. Furthermore, few studies address how these diagenetic bodies, which often cross-cut sedimentary bedding, can be captured in reservoir models, even though diagenetic modification is likely to impart a significant influence on flow behaviour. This paper presents a case study from the differentially dolomitised pre-rift Eocene Thebes Formation on the Sinai Peninsula. It documents the size of depositional and diagenetic geobodies and demonstrates how these data have been incorporated into a 3D geocellular model. The results can be used as input parameters or templates for reservoirs in which fault/fracture controlled dolomite bodies have been described, whilst the workflow could have broader applications to other carbonate reservoirs.
- ItemRegional fault-controlled shallow dolomitization of the Middle Cambrian Cathedral Formation by hydrothermal fluids fluxed through a basal clastic aquifer(2021) Stacey, Jack; Corlett, Hilary; Holland, Greg; Koeshidayatullah, Ardiansyah; Cao, Chunhui; Swart, Peter K.; Crowley, Stephen; Hollis, CathyThis study evaluates examples of hydrothermal dolomitization in the Middle Cambrian Cathedral Formation of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Kilometer-scale dolomite bodies within the Cathedral Formation carbonate platform are composed of replacement dolomite (RD), with saddle dolomite-cemented (SDC) breccias occurring along faults. These are overlain by the Stephen Formation (Burgess Shale equivalent) shale. RD is crosscut by low-amplitude stylolites cemented by SDC, indicating that dolomitization occurred at very shallow depths (<1 km) during the Middle Cambrian. Clumped isotope data from RD and SDC indicate that dolomitizing fluid temperatures were >230 °C, which demonstrates that dolomitization occurred from hydrothermal fluids. Assuming a geothermal gradient of 40 °C/km, due to rift-related basin extension, fluids likely convected along faults that extended to ∼6 km depth. The negative cerium anomalies of RD indicate that seawater was involved in the earliest phases of replacement dolomitization. 84Kr/36Ar and 132Xe/36Ar data are consistent with serpentinite-derived fluids, which became more dominant during later phases of replacement dolomitization/SDC precipitation. The elevated 87Sr/86Sr of dolomite phases, and its co-occurrence with authigenic quartz and albite, likely reflects fluid interaction with K-feldspar in the underlying Gog Group before ascending faults to regionally dolomitize the Cathedral Formation. In summary, these results demonstrate the important role of a basal clastic aquifer in regional-scale fluid circulation during hydrothermal dolomitization. Furthermore, the presence of the Stephen Formation shale above the platform facilitated the build-up of fluid pressure during the final phase of dolomitization, leading to the formation of saddle dolomite-cemented breccias at much shallower depths than previously realized.
- ItemShortwave infrared hyperspectral imaging as a novel method to elucidate multi-phase dolomitization, recrystallization, and cementation in carbonate sedimentary rocks(2021) McCormick, Cole A.; Corlett, Hilary; Stacey, Jack; Hollis, Cathy; Feng, Jilu; Rivard, Benoit; Omma, Jenny E.Carbonate rocks undergo low-temperature, post-depositional changes, including mineral precipitation, dissolution, or recrystallisation (diagenesis). Unravelling the sequence of these events is time-consuming, expensive, and relies on destructive analytical techniques, yet such characterization is essential to understand their post-depositional history for mineral and energy exploitation and carbon storage. Conversely, hyperspectral imaging offers a rapid, non-destructive method to determine mineralogy, while also providing compositional and textural information. It is commonly employed to differentiate lithology, but it has never been used to discern complex diagenetic phases in a largely monomineralic succession. Using spatial-spectral endmember extraction, we explore the efficacy and limitations of hyperspectral imaging to elucidate multi-phase dolomitization and cementation in the Cathedral Formation (Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin). Spectral endmembers include limestone, two replacement dolomite phases, and three saddle dolomite phases. Endmember distributions were mapped using Spectral Angle Mapper, then sampled and analyzed to investigate the controls on their spectral signatures. The absorption-band position of each phase reveals changes in %Ca (molar Ca/(Ca + Mg)) and trace element substitution, whereas the spectral contrast correlates with texture. The ensuing mineral distribution maps provide meter-scale spatial information on the diagenetic history of the succession that can be used independently and to design a rigorous sampling protocol.
- ItemStructural controls on non fabric‐selective dolomitization within rift‐related basin‐bounding normal fault systems: Insights from the Hammam Faraun Fault, Gulf of Suez, Egypt(2018) Hirani, Jesal; Bastesen, Eivind; Boyce, Adrian; Corlett, Hilary; Eker, Anja; Gawthorpe, Rob; Hollis, Cathy; Korneva, Irina; Rotevatn, AtleFault‐controlled dolostone bodies have been described as potential hydrocarbon‐bearing reservoirs. Numerous case studies have described the shape and size of these often non fabric selective dolostone bodies within the vicinity of crustal‐scale lineaments, usually from Palaeozoic or Mesozoic carbonate platforms, which have undergone one or more phases of burial and exhumation. There has been little attention paid, however, to fault‐strike variability in dolostone distribution or the preferential localization of these bodies on particular faults. This study focuses on dolostone bodies adjacent to the Hammam Faraun Fault (HFF), Gulf of Suez. This crustal‐scale normal fault was activated in the Late Oligocene, coincident with the onset of extension within the Suez Rift. Dolomitization in the prerift Eocene Thebes Formation occurred in the immediate footwall of the HFF forming two massive, non facies selective dolostone bodies, ca. 500 m wide. Facies‐controlled tongues of dolostone on the margins of the massive dolostone bodies extend for up to 100 m. The geochemical signature of the dolostone bodies is consistent with replacement by Miocene seawater, contemporaneous with the rift climax and localization of strain along the HFF. A conceptual model of dolomitization from seawater that circulated within the HFF during the rift climax is presented. Seawater was either directly drawn down the HFF or circulated from the hanging wall basin via a permeable aquifer towards the HFF. The lateral extent of the massive dolostone bodies was controlled by pre‐existing HFF‐parallel fracture corridors on the outer margins of the damage zone of the fault. The behaviour of these fracture corridors alternated between acting as barriers to fluid flow before rupture and acting as flow conduits during or after rupture. Multiple phases of dolomitization and recrystallization during the ca. 10 Ma period in which dolomitization occurred led to mottled petrographical textures and wide‐ranging isotopic signatures. The localization of dolomitization on the HFF is interpreted to reflect its proximity to a rift accommodation zone which facilitated vertical fluid flow due to perturbed and enhanced stresses during fault interaction. It is possible that the presence of jogs along the strike of the fault further focused fluid flux. As such, it is suggested that the massive dolostones described in this study provide a window into the earliest stages of formation of fault‐controlled hydrothermal dolostone bodies, which could have occurred in other areas and subsequently been overprinted by more complex diagenetic and structural fabrics.
- ItemThe effects of dolomitization on petrophysical properties and fracture distribution within rift-related carbonates (Hammam Faraun fault block, Suez Rift, Egypt)(2018) Korneva, Irina; Bastesen, Eivind; Corlett, Hilary; Eker, Anja; Hirani, Jesal; Hollis, Cathy; Gawthorpe, Rob; Rotevatn, Atle; Taylor, Rochelle; Laubach, Stephen E.; Lamarche, Juliette; Gauthier, Bertrand D. M.; Dunne, William M.Petrographic and petrophysical data from different limestone lithofacies (skeletal packstones, matrix-supported conglomerates and foraminiferal grainstones) and their dolomitized equivalents within a slope carbonate succession (Eocene Thebes Formation) of Hammam Faraun Fault Block (Suez Rift, Egypt) have been analyzed in order to link fracture distribution with mechanical and textural properties of these rocks. Two phases of dolomitization resulted in facies-selective stratabound dolostones extending up to two and a half kilometers from the Hammam Faraun Fault, and massive dolostones in the vicinity of the fault (100 metres). Stratabound dolostones are characterized by up to 8 times lower porosity and 6 times higher frequency of fractures compared to the host limestones. Precursor lithofacies type has no significant effect on fracture frequency in the stratabound dolostones. At a distance of 100 metres from the fault, massive dolostones are present which have 0.5 times porosity of precursor limestones, and lithofacies type exerts a stronger control on fracture frequency than the presence of dolomitization (undolomitized vs. dolomitized). Massive dolomitization corresponds to increased fracture intensity in conglomerates and grainstones but decreased fracture intensity in packstones. This corresponds to a decrease of grain/crystal size in conglomerates and grainstones and its increase in packstones after massive dolomitization.Since fractures may contribute significantly to the flow properties of a carbonate rock, the work presented herein has significant applicability to hydrocarbon exploration and production from limestone and dolostone reservoirs, particularly where matrix porosities are low.