Browsing by Author "Mazmanian, Dwight"
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ItemComparing positive and negative beliefs about worry in predicting generalized anxiety disorder symptoms(2012) Penney, Alexander; Mazmanian, Dwight; Rudanycz, CaitlinPeople with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) hold both positive and negative beliefs about worry. Dugas and Koerner (2005) view positive beliefs as one of the maintaining factors in GAD. Wells (2005) argues that the positive beliefs regarding worry are not unique to GAD, and that it is the negative beliefs about worry that maintain GAD. Ruscio and Borkovec (2004) found that the negative beliefs that worry is uncontrollable and dangerous differentiated individuals with GAD and individuals who were high worriers without GAD. The current study aimed to extend the findings of Ruscio and Borkovec (2004) through the use of a mediation model in a non-clinical sample (N = 230). Using subscales from the Why Worry-II (Holowka, Dugas, Francis, & Laugesen, 2000) and the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (Wells & Cartwright-Hatton, 2004), the results confirmed that both positive and negative beliefs about worry were correlated with GAD symptoms and trait worrying. However, using sequential regression, only the negative beliefs that worry is uncontrollable and dangerous, and that thoughts should be controlled predicted GAD symptoms after controlling for trait worrying. These beliefs, particularly the beliefs that worry is uncontrollable and dangerous, were found to mediate the relationship between trait worrying and GAD symptoms. Implications for models of the development of GAD are discussed. ItemFactors associated with recent suicide attempts in clients presenting for addiction treatment(2012) Penney, Alexander; Mazmanian, Dwight; Jamieson, John; Black, NancyFactors associated with recent suicide attempts were examined in clients who sought treatment at an addictions facility between 2001 and 2008. Clients who reported being hospitalized for attempting suicide in the past year (n = 76) were compared to all other clients (n = 5914) on demographic, mental health, substance use, and problem gambling variables. Compared to all other clients, clients who attempted suicide were significantly less educated, and more likely to have major depressive disorder, a bipolar disorder, ADHD, personality disorder, or a gambling problem. While mental health issues have long been linked with suicide, new research, such as the present study, continues to find associations between gambling and suicide. With the strong relationship between mood disorders and gambling, these findings support continued research into the possible connection between gambling and suicide. ItemIntelligence and emotional disorders: is the worrying and ruminating mind a more intelligent mind?(2015) Penney, Alexander; Miedema, Victoria C.; Mazmanian, DwightPrevious research has shown that anxiety and depression symptoms are negatively associated with measures of intelligence. However, this research has often not taken state distress and test anxiety into account, and recent findings indicate possible positive relationships between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), worry, and intelligence. The present study examined the relationships between GAD, depression, and social anxiety symptoms, as well as their underlying cognitive processes of worry, rumination, and post-event processing, with verbal and non-verbal intelligence in an undergraduate sample (N = 126). While the results indicate that verbal intelligence has positive relationships with GAD and depression symptoms when test anxiety and state negative affect were taken into account, these relationships became non-significant when overlapping variance was controlled for. However, verbal intelligence was a unique positive predictor of worry and rumination severity. Non-verbal intelligence was a unique negative predictor of post-event processing. The possible connections between intelligence and the cognitive processes that underlie emotional disorders are discussed. ItemLottery ticket and instant win ticket gambling: exploring the distinctions(2015) Short, Megan; Penney, Alexander; Mazmanian, Dwight; Jamieson, JohnLottery gambling is the most common form of gambling in Canada, and lottery tickets and instant win tickets are the most frequently played games. Differences between lottery ticket gambling and instant win ticket gambling were examined by using a large-scale Canadian data set (N = 25,780). Lottery ticket gambling was associated with being older, male, and married, whereas instant win ticket gambling was associated with lower levels of education. Frequency of instant win ticket gambling predicted greater problem gambling severity and participating in more gambling activities independent of demographic variables and lottery ticket gambling. In comparison, frequency of lottery ticket gambling did not predict problem gambling severity or the number of gambling activities independent of demographic variables and instant win ticket gambling. Neither lottery game was related to mental health disorders or substance use. These findings provide converging evidence suggesting that different lottery games may attract distinct types of Canadian gamblers. ItemNegative repetitive thoughts clarify the link between trait emotional intelligence and emotional distress(2019) Constantin, Kaytlin; Penney, Alexander; Pope, Carley J.; Miedema, Victoria C.; Tett, Robert P.; Mazmanian, DwightEmotional intelligence (EI) is reported to be inversely associated with emotional distress, although the potential role of negative repetitive thoughts in this relationship has not yet been explored. The current investigation examined the links between four facets of trait EI and emotional distress (i.e., symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], depression, and social anxiety), and the mediating roles of worry, rumination, and post-event processing (PEP) in a sample of university students (N = 126). The EI facets of recognizing and regulating emotions in the self correlated negatively with emotional distress and negative repetitive thoughts. Regulation of emotions in others correlated only with levels of social anxiety. The role of negative repetitive thoughts was tested using three multiple mediator models. Worry independently mediated the link between EI and symptoms of GAD. Worry, rumination, and PEP independently mediated the link between EI and depression. Worry and rumination independently mediated the link between EI and social anxiety. Results suggest lower trait EI may lead to greater negative repetitive thoughts, which may increase the experience of emotional distress. ItemWhen problem gambling is the primary reason for seeking addiction treatment(2011) Jamieson, John; Mazmanian, Dwight; Penney, Alexander; Black, Nancy; Nguyen, AnAn existing database was used to compare problem gamblers (N = 138) who presented for treatment of their gambling problem to two other groups: alcohol and/or drug addiction clients who also had a gambling problem (N = 280) or who did not have a gambling problem (N = 2178). Clients with gambling as their primary problem were more likely to be female; employed or retired; more highly educated; married, divorced, or widowed; without legal problems; and older than the other groups. They also had different patterns of recent mental health diagnoses and problematic substance use. The other problem gambling clients were more similar to the substance only clients. These findings indicate that those who present for treatment of problem gambling are a distinct subset of addiction clients who have gambling problems, and emphasize the importance of considering the reasons for seeking treatment, not just the presence of a gambling problem.