Browsing by Author "McKenzie, Hugh"
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ItemAncestry variation in the accuracy of Rogers's method of sex estimation(2020) Simpson, Rachel; McKenzie, HughRogers’s (1999) method of human skeletal sex estimation evaluates morphological variation in four traits of the distal humerus. Although this method has the potential for widespread application in forensic and biological anthropological contexts, previous tests have been unable to replicate Rogers’s initial accuracy rate of 92%. Additionally, the role of ancestry in the accuracy of the method has not been sufficiently explored. This study expands on previous blind tests of Rogers’s (1999) original method, though it differs methodologically from prior studies (Ammer et al. 2019; Falys et al. 2005; Harrison 2017; Horbaly et al. 2019; Rogers 2009; Tallman & Blanton 2019; Vance et al. 2011; Wanek 2002; Watkinson 2012) by explicitly controlling for ancestry (85 American Black and 114 American White individuals, as defined in the Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection), by seriating humeri according to trait expression, and by using logistic regression in addition to chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests for analyzing the results. The findings determined that the method was 67% accurate overall and that correct classifications were 2.03 more likely for American Whites than American Blacks, posing an important consideration for practitioners of this method. ItemAncestry-specific variation in Rogers' method of sex estimation(2018) Simpson, Rachel; McKenzie, HughRogers’ (1999, 2009) visual method is a technique for estimating skeletal sex based on four traits of the distal humerus, and is valuable in cases of commingled or fragmented remains when use of more dominant cranial and pelvic methods is not possible. However, Rogers’ initial accuracy of 92% has not been replicated by subsequent tests of the method, and the role of biological ancestry in the accuracy of this method has not been sufficiently addressed. I conducted a blind test of the method on a sample of nineteenth-century American black and white individuals from the Hamann-Todd Collection. This test resulted in an overall accuracy of 67%, ranging from 54–73% between the two groups. These results demonstrate that accurate estimation of sex using the method is two times more likely for a white individual than for an black individual. More research is required to understand the cause of this variation. Prior to applying this method in bioarchaeological and forensic contexts, future should consider these results that the method is not consistently accurate across all human populations. ItemBioarchaeological analysis of human remains from the destroyed Early Neolithic cemetery of Moty – Novaia Shamanka (Cis-Baikal)(2022) Bourgeois, Rebecca L.; Weber, Andrzej W.; Bazaliiskii, Vladimir I.; McKenzie, Hugh; Lieverse, Angela R.Moty – Novaia Shamanka (MNS) is an Early Neolithic (7560–6660 HPD cal BP) destroyed Kitoi cemetery, located on the lower Irkut River in Siberia. In 2014–2015, small rescue excavations were conducted by archaeologists from Irkutsk State University. MNS dates to the period between the two phases of use identified at the nearby Shamanka II Kitoi cemetery (Southwest Baikal). This paper presents the results of a bioarchaeological study of the human skeletal remains from MNS and discusses these findings in relation to hunter-gatherer life-history at this site and in the Cis-Baikal region. The human skeletal materials from MNS show life history markers, including isotopic signatures, consistent with the other Early Neolithic Kitoi samples. However, one individual shows anomalous isotopic signatures similar to those found, to date, only in one other Kitoi burial. Lastly and surprisingly, radiocarbon dating identified one Early Bronze Age individual (4970–3470 cal BP). ItemA four-stage approach to re-associating fragmented and commingled human remains(2021) Bourgeois, Rebecca L.; Bazaliiskii, Vladimir I.; McKenzie, Hugh; Clark, Terence N.; Lieverse, Angela R.Bioarchaeological and forensic anthropological methods are limited in their ability to re-associate human skeletal remains that have been both fragmented and commingled. Although many methods for individualizing commingled remains exist, they are rendered ineffective when the level of fragmentation is high. In these contexts, human remains are often approached similarly to faunal assemblages, regarded as sets of fragmented elements rather than as groups of fragments representing an individual. This paper introduces a new, four-stage approach to identifying discrete individuals from unintentionally fragmented and commingled human remains and salvaging information from highly disturbed cemetery contexts. These stages include documentation, grouping, analysis, and evaluation, each incorporating multiple methods so as to be applicable to a wide variety of assemblages or data availability. Through this process, quantitative analyses are used to evaluate qualitative groupings. This method is applicable to skeletal collections of varying levels of preservation. To demonstrate its application, we apply this methodology to an Early Neolithic (7560–6660 HPD cal. BP) hunter-gatherer cemetery, Moty-Novaia Shamanka (MNS), located in the Cis-Baikal region of Siberia, Russia. MNS was destroyed in the 1990s for urban development and flood management, leaving the ancient skeletal remains severely fragmented and commingled. Our results identified five discrete individual groupings from 1245 human bone fragments, and eight further groupings of related fragments. Through a process of elimination, it was determined that these groupings represented at least seven distinct people. The methodological approach of this study challenges our perception of the informative value of fragmented and commingled human remains and provides an example of how future studies could approach individualization in situations where most context has been lost. ItemInsights into Lake Baikal's ancient populations based on genetic evidence from the Early Neolithic Shamanka II and Early Bronze Age Kurma XI cemeteries(2021) Moussa, Nour; McKenzie, Hugh; Bazaliiskii, Vladimir I.; Goriunova, Olga I.; Bamforth, Fiona; Weber, Andrzej W.Although previous ancient DNA research has contributed to the investigation of middle Holocene culture history and population dynamics in the Cis-Baikal, most of this work has been limited to the Angara valley and southwest Baikal, with only restricted genetic analysis of skeletal materials from the Little Sea microregion. In this paper, we expand upon initial findings by analyzing new mtDNA results from the EN/EBA Kurma XI cemetery (Little Sea area) and the EN Shamanka II cemetery (southwest Baikal). Our results not only contribute to the regional dataset, but also challenge previous findings. First, haplogroup Z was found for the first time in the ancient population of Cis-Baikal. Second, our data provide tentative support for the idea that an exogamous and/or patrilocal marriage pattern might be detectable at the Early Bronze Age cemetery Kurma XI. Third, our results indicate that the EN population of Cis-Baikal may not be as homogeneous in maternal origin as was previously suggested. Similarly, there seems to be less continuity between the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze age samples than previously thought, which further justifies the separation of these groups for future analyses. Finally, our data indicate that the maternal genetic background of the Early Bronze Age sample from Kurma XI is closer to that of known Early Neolithic groups than it is to those from the Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age. This observation is surprising and, if correct, would seem to directly contradict the previous suggestion of a Middle Neolithic genetic discontinuity. These new findings complicate our understanding of the relationships between middle Holocene populations in the Cis-Baikal. ItemInvestigation of methodologies for fiberglass resin removal from bone(2015) Thew, Mellisa; McKenzie, HughA human skeleton that had formerly been used as a theatrical stage prop was improperly conserved using fiberglass resin, making it unsuitable for teaching collections. This project evaluates the use of solvents and heat for removing fiberglass from bone, in an attempt to return this skeleton to a more useful, and ethically responsible, condition. ItemPopulation-specific variation in the accuracy of Rogers’ method of sex estimation(2018) Simpson, Rachel; McKenzie, HughRogers’ (1) method of sex estimation is a visual technique that evaluates morphological variation in four traits of the distal posterior humerus. This method has the potential for widespread application in biological anthropology, but previous tests have been unable to replicate Rogers’ initial accuracy rate of 92%. Additionally, the role of populations in the accuracy of the method has not been sufficiently explored, as only one study (2) has controlled for it. Wanek (2) found differences in the accuracy of Rogers’ method correlated with different populations but concluded the method could be used on all human populations, regardless. This study tests Wanek’s (2) conclusion through a blind test of Rogers’ (1) original method, though it differs methodologically from previous studies (1–7) by seriating humeri according to trait expression, and by using logistic regression for analysis of results. In conducting a blind test on a sample of American black and white individuals from The Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection, I found that the method was 67% accurate overall, and that odds for a correct classification were 2.03 more likely for a white individual than for a black individual. Prior to applying this method in the future, bioarchaeologists and forensic anthropologists should consider these results within the context of their study. ItemSpatial and temporal differences in Late Neolithic Serovo to Early Bronze Age Glazkovo forager diet in Lake Baikal's Little Sea Microregion, Siberia(2021) Waters Rist, Andrea L.; Lieverse, Angela R.; Novikov, Alexei G.; Goriunova, Olga I.; Kharinskii, Artur A.; McKenzie, HughResearch on Middle Holocene hunter-gatherers from the Cis-Baikal region of Eastern Siberia has yielded many insights into their dietary and mobility patterns. A large dataset of stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope values, when paired with freshwater-reservoir corrected carbon-14 dates, allows us to conduct fine-scale investigations into dietary change. Our Small Cemeteries Project has increased the sample of Late Neolithic (LN) Serovo individuals, and Ol'khon Island burials, allowing for new investigations into changes between the Serovo and subsequent Early Bronze Age (EBA) Glazkovo mortuary traditions in the Little Sea Microregion. This is important because research exploring the extent and nature of cultural continuity and change between these mortuary traditions has received less attention than more pronounced earlier transitions. We use stable isotope data from 134 adolescents and adults to explore (1) temporal changes in δ13C and δ15N values across the Serovo and Glazkovo mortuary traditions, and (2) differences in stable isotope values between individuals buried on Ol'khon Island vs. the Mainland. During Serovo times, Islanders and Mainlanders were eating somewhat different diets, with the former consuming more seal and the latter more shallow-water fish. Glazkovo Islanders maintained a broadly similar diet to their Serovo Islander predecessors suggesting the continued existence of a specialized group of Island seal hunters. After ~4100 calBP, and the arrival of the Glazkovo mortuary tradition in the Little Sea Microregion, there is the appearance of a new group of Mainlanders consuming a diet with low δ15N (≤ 14.6‰) and/or low δ13C (≤ ˗19.0‰) values unlike anything seen previously. This diet included less lake fish and seal and more terrestrial herbivores. Previous research has shown that many Mainland Glazkovo individuals with this new diet were non-local. Our study finds that just over half of Glazkovo Mainlanders have a low δ13C or δ15N value and they are found in all cemeteries with multiple individuals. This suggests such individuals, many of which were non-local, were fully incorporated into local social groups. Further increasing the sample of LN and Island individuals is needed to better establish these findings; nonetheless, our research highlights the diversity in Middle Holocene adaptive strategies in the Little Sea Microregion.