Browsing by Author "Stockwell, Tim"
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- ItemCommunity managed alcohol programs in Canada: overview of key dimensions and implementation(2018) Pauly, Bernie; Vallance, Kate; Wettlaufer, Ashley; Chow, Clifton; Brown, Randi; Evans, Joshua; Gray, Erin; Krysowaty, Bonnie; Ivsins, Andrew; Schiff, Rebecca; Stockwell, TimIntroduction and Aims: People with severe alcohol dependence and unstable housing are vulnerable to multiple harms related to drinking and homelessness. Managed Alcohol Programs (MAP) aim to reduce harms of severe alcohol use without expecting cessation of use. There is promising evidence that MAPs reduce acute and social harms associated with alcohol dependence. The aim of this paper is to describe MAPs in Canada including key dimensions and implementation issues. Design and Methods: Thirteen Canadian MAPs were identified through the Canadian Managed Alcohol Program Study. Nine key informant interviews were conducted and analyzed alongside program documents and reports to create individual case reports. Inductive content analysis and cross case comparisons were employed to identify six key dimensions of MAPs. Results: Community based MAPs have a common goal of preserving dignity and reducing harms of drinking while increasing access to housing, health and social services. MAPs are offered as both residential and day programs with differences in six key dimensions including program goals and eligibility, food and accommodation, alcohol dispensing and administration, funding and money management, primary care services and clinical monitoring, and social and cultural connections. Discussion and Conclusions: MAPs consist of four pillars with the alcohol intervention provided alongside housing interventions, primary care services, social and cultural interventions. Availability of permanent housing and re-establishing social and cultural connections are central to recovery and healing goals of MAPs. Additional research regarding Indigenous and gendered approaches to program development as well as outcomes related to chronic harms and differences in alcohol management are needed.
- ItemOn the outside looking in: finding a place for managed alcohol programs in the harm reduction movement(2019) Ivsins, Andrew; Pauly, Bernie; Brown, Meaghan; Evans, Joshua; Gray, Erin; Schiff, Rebecca; Krysowaty, Bonnie; Vallance, Kate; Stockwell, TimAlcohol policy in North America is dominated by moderation and abstinence-based modalities that focus on controlling population-level alcohol consumption and modifying individual consumption patterns to prevent and reduce alcohol-related harms. However, conventional alcohol policies and interventions do not adequately address harms associated with high-risk drinking among individuals experiencing severe alcohol use disorder (AUD) and structural vulnerability such as poverty and homelessness. In this commentary we address this gap in alcohol harm reduction, and highlight the lack of, and distinct need for, alcohol-specific harm reduction for people experiencing structural vulnerability and severe AUD. These individuals, doubly impacted by structural oppression and severe AUD, engage in various high-risk drinking practices that contribute to a unique set of harms that conventional abstinence-based treatments and interventions fail to adequately attend to. Managed alcohol programs (MAPs) have been established to address these multiple intersecting harms, and though gaining momentum across Canada, have had a hard time finding their place within the harm reduction movement. We illustrate how MAPs play a crucial role in the harm reduction movement in their ability to not only address high-risk drinking practices among structurally marginalized individuals, but to respond to harms associated with broader structural inequities such as poverty and homelessness.
- Item“There is a place”: impacts of managed alcohol programs for people experiencing severe alcohol dependence and homelessness(2019) Pauly, Bernie; Brown, Meaghan; Evans, Joshua; Gray, Erin; Schiff, Rebecca; Ivsins, Andrew; Krysowaty, Bonnie; Vallance, Kate; Stockwell, TimBackground The twin problems of severe alcohol dependence and homelessness are associated with precarious living and multiple acute, social and chronic harms. While much attention has been focused on harm reduction services for illicit drug use, there has been less attention to harm reduction for this group. Managed alcohol programs (MAPs) are harm reduction interventions that aim to reduce the harms of severe alcohol use, poverty and homelessness. MAPs typically provide accommodation, health and social supports alongside regularly administered sources of beverage alcohol to stabilize drinking patterns and replace use of non-beverage alcohol (NBA). Methods We examined impacts of MAPs in reducing harms and risks associated with substance use and homelessness. Using case study methodology, data were collected from five MAPs in five Canadian cities with each program constituting a case. In total, 53 program participants, 4 past participants and 50 program staff were interviewed. We used situational analysis to produce a series of “messy”, “ordered” and “social arenas” maps that provide insight into the social worlds of participants and the impact of MAPs. Results Prior to entering a MAP, participants were often in a revolving world of cycling through multiple arenas (health, justice, housing and shelters) where abstinence from alcohol is often required in order to receive assistance. Residents described living in a street-based survival world characterized by criminalization, unmet health needs, stigma and unsafe spaces for drinking and a world punctuated by multiple losses and disconnections. MAPs disrupt these patterns by providing a harm reduction world in which obtaining accommodation and supports are not contingent on sobriety. MAPs represent a new arena that focuses on reducing harms through provision of safer spaces and supply of alcohol, with opportunities for reconnection with family and friends and for Indigenous participants, Indigenous traditions and cultures. Thus, MAPs are safer spaces but also potentially spaces for healing. Conclusions In a landscape of limited alcohol harm reduction options, MAPs create a new arena for people experiencing severe alcohol dependence and homelessness. While MAPs reduce precarity for participants, programs themselves remain precarious due to ongoing challenges related to lack of understanding of alcohol harm reduction and insecure program funding.