Browsing by Author "Tresguerres, Martin"
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- ItemAcute fluoxetine exposure alters crab anxiety-like behaviour, but not aggressiveness(2016) Hamilton, Trevor; Kwan, Garfield T.; Gallup, Joshua; Tresguerres, MartinAggression and responsiveness to noxious stimuli are adaptable traits that are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Like vertebrate animals, some invertebrates have been shown to exhibit anxiety-like behaviour and altered levels of aggression that are modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. To investigate whether this influence of serotonin is conserved in crabs and whether these behaviours are sensitive to human antidepressant drugs; the striped shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, was studied using anxiety (light/dark test) and aggression (mirror test) paradigms. Crabs were individually exposed to acute doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5 or 25 mg/L), commonly known as Prozac®, followed by behavioural testing. The high dose of fluoxetine significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour but had no impact on mobility or aggression. These results suggest that anxiety-like behaviour is more sensitive to modulation of serotonin than is aggressiveness in the shore crab.
- ItemCO2-induced ocean acidification increases anxiety in rockfish via alteration of GABAA receptor functioning(2013) Hamilton, Trevor; Holcombe, Adam; Tresguerres, MartinThe average surface pH of the ocean is dropping at a rapid rate due to the dissolution of anthropogenic CO2, raising concerns for marine life. Additionally, some coastal areas periodically experience upwelling of CO2-enriched water with reduced pH. Previous research has demonstrated ocean acidification (OA)-induced changes in behavioural and sensory systems including olfaction, which is due to altered function of neural gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. Here, we used a camera-based tracking software system to examine whether OA-dependent changes in GABAA receptors affect anxiety in juvenile Californian rockfish (Sebastes diploproa). Anxiety was estimated using behavioural tests that measure light/dark preference (scototaxis) and proximity to an object. After one week in OA conditions projected for the next century in the California shore (1125 ± 100 µatm, pH 7.75), anxiety was significantly increased relative to controls (483 ± 40 µatm CO2, pH 8.1). The GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol, but not the antagonist gabazine, caused a significant increase in anxiety consistent with altered Cl− flux in OA-exposed fish. OA-exposed fish remained more anxious even after 7 days back in control seawater; however, they resumed their normal behaviour by day 12. These results show that OA could severely alter rockfish behaviour; however, this effect is reversible.
- ItemEffects of ocean acidification on dopamine-mediated behavioral responses of a coral reef damselfish(2023) Hamilton, Trevor; Tresguerres, Martin; Kwan, Garfield T.; Szaszkiewicz, Joshua; Franczak, Brian C.; Cyronak, Tyler; Andersson, Andreas J.; Kline, David I.We investigated whether CO2-induced ocean acidification (OA) affects dopamine receptor-dependent behavior in bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus). Damselfish were kept in aquaria receiving flow through control (pH ~ 8.03; pCO2 ~ 384 μatm) or OA (pH ~ 7.64; CO2 ~ 1100 μatm) seawater at a rate of 1 L min−1. Despite this relatively fast flow rate, fish respiration further acidified the seawater in both control (pH ~7.88; pCO2 ~ 595 μatm) and OA (pH ~7.55; pCO2 ~ 1450 μatm) fish-holding aquaria. After five days of exposure, damselfish locomotion, boldness, anxiety, and aggression were assessed using a battery of behavioral tests using automated video analysis. Two days later, these tests were repeated following application of the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393. OA-exposure induced ceiling anxiety levels that were significantly higher than in control damselfish, and SKF 38393 increased anxiety in control damselfish to a level not significantly different than that of OA-exposed damselfish. Additionally, SKF 38393 decreased locomotion and increased boldness in control damselfish but had no effect in OA-exposed damselfish, suggesting an alteration in activity of dopaminergic pathways that regulate behavior under OA conditions. These results indicate that changes in dopamine D1 receptor function affects fish behavior during exposure to OA. However, subsequent measurements of seawater sampled using syringes during the daytime (~3–4 pm local time) from crevasses in coral reef colonies, which are used as shelter by damselfish, revealed an average pH of 7.73 ± 0.03 and pCO2 of 925.8 ± 62.2 μatm; levels which are comparable to Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 predicted end-of-century mean OA levels in the open ocean. Further studies considering the immediate environmental conditions experienced by fish as well as individual variability and effect size are required to understand potential implications of the observed OA-induced behavioral effects on damselfish fitness in the wild.
- ItemEstablishing zebrafish as a model to study the anxiolytic effects of scopolamine(2017) Hamilton, Trevor; Morrill, Adam; Lucas, Kayla; Gallup, Joshua; Harris, Megan; Healey, Meghan; Pitman, Taylor; Schalomon, Melike; Digweed, Shannon; Tresguerres, MartinScopolamine (hyoscine) is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist that has traditionally been used to treat motion sickness in humans. However, studies investigating depressed and bipolar populations have found that scopolamine is also effective at reducing depression and anxiety symptoms. The potential anxiety-reducing (anxiolytic) effects of scopolamine could have great clinical implications for humans; however, rats and mice administered scopolamine showed increased anxiety in standard behavioural tests. This is in direct contrast to findings in humans, and complicates studies to elucidate the specific mechanisms of scopolamine action. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of zebrafish as a model system to test anxiety-like compounds using scopolamine. Similar to humans, scopolamine acted as an anxiolytic in individual behavioural tests (novel approach test and novel tank diving test). The anxiolytic effect of scopolamine was dose dependent and biphasic, reaching maximum effect at 800 µM. Scopolamine (800 µM) also had an anxiolytic effect in a group behavioural test, as it significantly decreased their tendency to shoal. These results establish zebrafish as a model organism for studying the anxiolytic effects of scopolamine, its mechanisms of action and side effects.
- ItemExposure to bloom-like concentrations of two marine Synechococcus cyanobacteria (strains CC9311 and CC9902) differentially alters fish behaviour(2014) Hamilton, Trevor; Paz-Yepes, Javier; Morrison, Rachel M.; Palenik, Brian; Tresguerres, MartinCoastal California experiences large-scale blooms of Synechococcus cyanobacteria, which are predicted to become more prevalent by the end of the 21st century as a result of global climate change. This study investigated whether exposure to bloom-like concentrations of two Synechococcus strains, CC9311 and CC9902, alters fish behaviour. Black perch (Embiotoca jacksoni) were exposed to Synechococcus strain CC9311 or CC9902 (1.5 × 106 cells ml−1) or to control seawater in experimental aquaria for 3 days. Fish movement inside a testing arena was then recorded and analysed using video camera-based motion-tracking software. Compared with control fish, fish exposed to CC9311 demonstrated a significant preference for the dark zone of the tank in the light–dark test, which is an indication of increased anxiety. Furthermore, fish exposed to CC9311 also had a statistically significant decrease in velocity and increase in immobility and they meandered more in comparison to control fish. There was a similar trend in velocity, immobility and meandering in fish exposed to CC9902, but there were no significant differences in behaviour or locomotion between this group and control fish. Identical results were obtained with a second batch of fish. Additionally, in this second trial we also investigated whether fish would recover after a 3 day period in seawater without cyanobacteria. Indeed, there were no longer any significant differences in behaviour among treatments, demonstrating that the sp. CC9311-induced alteration of behaviour is reversible. These results demonstrate that blooms of specific marine Synechococcus strains can induce differential sublethal effects in fish, namely alterations light–dark preference behaviour and motility.
- ItemShoaling behaviour is differentially altered by ethanol and dopamine D1 receptor modulators in tropical marine forage fish(2018) Hamilton, Trevor; Kline, David I.; Tresguerres, MartinAnchovies are filter-feeding fish that inhabit nearshore environments worldwide. With increasing human pharmaceutical use, drugs that alter neurological functioning are becoming more prevalent in aquatic ecosystems via wastewater effluent, creating the need for tests that can reliably determine sublethal effects of these drugs on coastal fish populations. In this study, we used Caribbean anchovies (Anchoa spp.) as a tropical marine fish model to test drug-induced alterations of locomotion and shoaling behaviour with a video-based analysis system. Consistent with its anxiolytic effects in zebrafish (Danio rerio), ethanol decreased shoal cohesion in anchovies. We also characterized the effects of drugs known to modulate the dopaminergic system in zebrafish and rodents. A D1 receptor agonist (SKF 38393) and a D1 receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) increased the time anchovy spent in the center of the arena, but neither drug had an impact on shoal cohesion. Finally, the D1 receptor agonist caused significantly lower meandering compared with fish treated with the D1 receptor antagonist and ethanol. This study suggests that anchovy is a suitable Caribbean marine model for toxicology studies.
- ItemThe dose makes the poison: non-linear behavioural response to CO2-induced aquatic acidification in zebrafish (Danio rerio)(2021) Hamilton, Trevor; Hurst Radke, Nicole; Bajwa, Jasmin; Chaput, Shayna; Tresguerres, MartinCO2-induced aquatic acidification is predicted to affect fish neuronal GABAA receptors leading to widespread behavioural alterations. However, the large variability in the magnitude and direction of behavioural responses suggests substantial species-specific CO2 threshold differences, life history and parental acclimation effects, experimental artifacts, or a combination of these factors. As an established model organism, zebrafish (Danio rerio) can be reared under stable conditions for multiple generations, which may help control for some of the variability observed in wild-caught fishes. Here, we used two standardized tests to investigate the effect of 1-week acclimatization to four pCO2 levels on zebrafish anxiety-like behaviour, exploratory behaviour, and locomotion. Fish acclimatized to 900 μatm CO2 demonstrated increased anxiety-like behaviour compared to control fish (~480 μatm), however, the behaviour of fish exposed to 2200 μatm CO2 was indistinguishable from that of controls. In addition, fish acclimatized to 4200 μatm CO2 had decreased anxiety-like behaviour; i.e. the opposite response than the 900 μatm CO2 treatment. On the other hand, exploratory behaviour did not differ among any of the pCO2 exposures that were tested. Thus, zebrafish behavioural responses to elevated pCO2 are not linear; with potential important implications for physiological, environmental, and aquatic acidification studies.