Browsing by Author "Watson, David"
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- ItemAcademic procrastination: the pattern and correlates of behavioural postponement(2006) Powell, Russell A.; Howell, Andrew J.; Watson, David; Buro, KarenUsing a series of computer-based assignments, we examined whether students’ submission patterns revealed a hyperbolic pattern of temporal discounting, such that few assignments are submitted far ahead of the deadline and submission of assignments accelerates at an increasing rate as the deadline becomes imminent. We further examined whether variables related to self-regulation – namely, self-reported procrastination, implementation intentions, say-do correspondence, and perceived academic control – correlated with behavioural postponement. Results revealed strong behavioural evidence of temporal discounting, especially among those who identified themselves as procrastinators. Among the self-regulation measures, only say-do correspondence consistently correlated with procrastination.
- ItemCosmic awe, self-esteem, and materialism: the effects of awe and self-esteem on materialist values and beliefs(2020) McCurdy, Emmett; Watson, DavidExperiencing awe (a self transcendent shift in perspective) has been shown to increase generosity, spirituality, and prosociality, reduce tribalism, and reduce inclination towards conspicuous consumption. The present research aims to investigate the effects of experiencing awe on individuals’ endorsement of materialistic values and beliefs through an online experimental design. It is hypothesized that induction of awe will result in decreased endorsement of materialism, as the self-transcendental nature of the experience minimizes self-focused goals and encourages greater prosocial and achievement motivations.
- ItemEscape theory and materialism: an experimental paradigm for self-blame(2017) Radetzki, Phillip A.; Watson, DavidEscape theory proposes a six-step process in which materialists’ forthcoming self-awareness reveals a general dissatisfaction with life, thereby stimulating a pursuit toward the attainment of tangible objects as a form of compensation. Although there is sufficient evidence supporting the overall plausibility of escape theory, Donnelly and colleagues acknowledge that further research regarding specific steps would enhance its strength. Moreover, a significant portion of findings on materialism are correlational, thereby making research utilizing experimental paradigms of particular value. The present study will investigate escape theory’s second step, self-blame, with an experimental design. The participant pool (n=300) will consist of undergraduate students with materialistic orientations. As a cover story, participants will be presented two unrelated studies regarding perceptions of interpersonal conflict and the impact of website design on the psychology of the online shopper. In the first portion, participants will be randomly assigned to a neutral condition or a condition designed to induce self-blame. Both conditions involve exposure to a vignette with a filler questionnaire. In the second portion, participants will explore a fictitious online store and purchase desired items. There will be 30 categories of product. Each category will contain three versions of the product corresponding to different levels of materialistic value. Within a materialistic population, those primed to experience self-blame are predicted to demonstrate significant bias toward products high in materialistic value. If the hypothesis is supported, the proposed study will add experimental evidence for the causal role of self-blame in the maladaptive attitude toward wealth and material objects.
- ItemMaterialism: temporal balance, mindfulness and savoring(2019) Watson, DavidThe current research investigated mindfulness, savoring and temporal balance and how they are related to temporal perspective (TP) in materialistic individuals in a sample of 404 University students. Recent research on materialism and TP has found that highly materialistic individuals are more likely to have a past-negative or present fatalistic perspective rather than a balanced temporal perspective which is considered the most adaptive. Given these findings, it was hypothesized that materialism is negatively related to mindfulness and savoring, which involve having a clear focus on the present moment. It was also hypothesized that materialism is positively associated with the unbalanced types of TP, the “reminiscer”, “futurist” and “time restrictive” and that materialism is associated with deviation from the balanced time perspective (DBTP). In addition, it was hypothesized that mindfulness and savoring mediate the relationship between DBTP and materialism. The results are consistent with these hypotheses as mindfulness was negatively related to materialism and savoring the moment was related to lower levels of materialism. Materialism was also associated with higher DBTP scores and the “reminiscer” and “futurist” unbalanced temporal styles. Mindfulness, savoring the moment and anticipation-savoring were found to be mediators in the DBTP and materialism relationship.
- ItemNeuroticism versus emotionality as mediators of the negative relationship between materialism and well-being(2021) Watson, DavidThe purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between, neuroticism, emotionality well-being and materialism. A series of mediation analyses were conducted with data obtained from a set of questionnaires completed by University students. The results indicated that neuroticism and emotionality were mediators in the well-being-materialism relationship. However, this relationship is dependent upon whether neuroticism or emotionality is measured as the three neuroticism measures utilized were significant mediators whereas the HEXACO emotionality scale was not. A facet-level analysis was conducted with the IPIP-NEO facets of volatility and withdrawal and with the HEXACO facets of sentimentality/dependence and withdrawal. In either case, withdrawal was a significant mediator in the materialism well-being relationship, whereas volatility or sentimentality/dependence was not. The results highlight the differences between neuroticism and HEXACO emotionality and add additional insight into the relationship between materialism and lower well-being. These findings suggest possible methods of decreasing materialistic tendencies and increasing subjective well-being.
- ItemParasocial relationships and materialism in the media: the moderating role of motivation(2023) Woods, Emily; Watson, DavidThe literature has identified a positive relationship between materialism and social media intensity, as well as between materialism and celebrity worship. However, the literature on the relationship between materialism and parasocial relationships needs to be more thorough. Parasocial relationships are characterized by the one-sided online relationship audience members experience with media influencers, and materialism is when individuals hold values that prioritize image, popularity, making a lot of money, and having a lot of possessions. Previous studies have identified how materialism is related to the processes engaged in during extensive media consumption, as well as the attitudes involved in the increase in materialism as a function of celebrity worship, particularly envy. This study is aimed at expanding on a recently developed social comparison framework and determining whether the differing attitudes consumers hold regarding the fortunes-of-influencers (FOI) and their differing motivations behind media usage (process and social) are related to parasocial relationship intensity (PSI) and resulting materialistic outcomes. We will employ a correlational analysis using a sample of MacEwan first year students, the majority of which aged 18-24, who report frequent activity on social media, assessing the relationship between social comparison engagement, social media processes, FOI, PSI, and materialistic outcomes. The results and conclusion will be reported at a later date once the data has been collected.
- ItemSelf-compassion, the ‘quiet ego’ and materialism(2018) Watson, DavidThe research is an investigation of self-compassion and materialism. Self-compassion is when an individual has a caring, non-judgmental view of the self. This quality has been related to lower depression, less negative emotion and higher psychological health (Neff, 2003). Materialism has been consistently associated with low subjective well-being and unhappiness. A related concept is that of the ‘quiet ego’, which is a less competitive, less self-centered individual with more concern with connecting with others and with personal growth (Wayment et al., 2015). Therefore, it is hypothesized that highly materialistic individuals will be lower in self-compassion and have a fear of compassion from others and towards others and that self-compassion and fears of compassion will mediate the relationship between materialism and low subjective well-being. As materialistic individuals are more likely to be competitive and individualistic, it is hypothesized that the ‘quiet ego’ will be negatively related to materialism. These hypotheses were investigated using a set of questionnaires with 423 undergraduate participants. The results indicated a relationship between materialism and fear of compassion for others and of responding to the compassion of others. Materialism was also negatively related to the ‘quiet ego’ and related constructs such as: mindfulness, satisfaction with life and generativity. Self-compassion, fears of compassion and the quiet-ego were also found to mediate the relationship between materialism and measures of well-being. The results are consistent with several theoretical explanations for the development of materialism. It is possible that increasing self-compassion, reducing fears of compassion and ‘ego-quieting’ procedures could be developed as methods of reducing materialistic tendencies.
- ItemThe thinking person’s music: heavy metal and the need for cognition(2021) Schmaltz, Rodney; Watson, David; Johnson, AdrianPast research indicates that music preference is correlated with the need for cognition (NFC). Specifically, heavy metal fans have been found to score lower on NFC than fans of other genres. In this study, a large sample of music fans completed measures of NFC well as the Short Dark Triad scale, which measures Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy. Contrary to previous findings, fans of heavy metal scored significantly higher on NFC than fans of other genres. Consistent with previous research, fans of “problem music” (i.e., heavy metal and rap) scored higher on the Dark Triad. As the original work on NFC and music preference was conducted over 30 years ago, we speculate that a change in the style of heavy metal may correlate with a change in the need for cognition.
- ItemWell-being, temporal orientation, and the dual nature of materialism(2020) Watson, DavidThe present research examined the dual nature of the materialistic personality in terms of temporal perspective, subjective well-being, and materialism. The dual-nature model hypothesizes an anxious “mouse” type and a more flamboyant “peacock” type of materialist. Previous research has found a relationship between materialism and past-negative and present fatalistic temporal orientation. This study extended this research by examining the future-negative perspective and its relationship to materialism and well-being. It was hypothesized that the two types of materialists would have different temporal profiles. In addition, it was predicted that a future-negative perspective would mediate the relationship between materialism and well-being as was previously found with past-negative temporal orientation. The results indicated higher dark-future, future-negative, and past-negative scores with the “mouse” type materialists and higher present hedonistic scores in the “peacock” type materialists. Mediation analysis showed an indirect effect of a future-negative perspective in the relationship between materialism and well-being.