Browsing by Author "Muralidharan, Etayankara"
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ItemApple iPhone: a market case study(2021) Van De Vliert, Daylin; Muralidharan, EtayankaraFounded in 1976, Apple inc. quickly became one of the biggest companies in the world. Throughout the years, Apple has been apart of the technology market where there has been an exponential amount of opportunities and threats. This market case study aims to determine how Apple can target such opportunities to help predict future trends and influences over the market. To identify these trends and market influences, I have first conducted an environmental scan of Apple’s current and future market(s). Then I described Apple’s fundamental psychological and sociocultural consumer behaviors. And finally, I identified Apple’s target market, how they have chosen to segment and the demographics and geographics within Apple’s largest target segments. As a result of successfully identifying trends in the past, Apple continues to impress with its globally known brand name and customer base/market. However, Apple must continue to identify future opportunities to stay relevant in the ever-advancing technological market. This analysis of the marketing context suggests Apple may need to re-position its iPhones to maintain its leading position in the marketplace. ItemCanada-Asia energy technology and services forum : findings report(2014) Roberts, Michael J. D.; Kincaide, Heather; Muralidharan, Etayankara; Sadler, MargaretIn order to address some of the challenges that Canadian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the energy technology and services sector face in accessing opportunities in Asia, MacEwan University School of Business, in association with the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada (APF Canada), hosted the Canada–Asia Energy Technology and Services Forum on April 29, 2014. Held at the City Centre Campus of MacEwan University, Edmonton, the forum brought together Canada and Asia-based energy leaders from industry, government, and academia for a discussion on how small and medium sized Canadian companies can develop Asian markets for their energy technology and services, and manage the risks associated with entering and operating in Asian markets. The forum focused on India and China as markets for energy technology and services, but also included broader discussion of opportunities in other Asian markets. ItemConsequences of cross-cultural differences in perceived well-being for entrepreneurship(2021) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraIn this article, we empirically test a theory-based model that delineates the indirect effect of societal-level well-being, through societal-level self-expression values, on individual entrepreneurship. Using 881,636 individual-level responses obtained from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) from 44 countries and supplementing with country-level data from the World Values Survey (WVS), our results from multilevel cross-cultural analyses demonstrate that societal-level well-being - hedonic and eudaimonic - are positively related to societal-level self-expression values, and that self-expression values mediate the relation between both types of well-being and likelihood of individuals engaging in entrepreneurship. Hence, hedonic and eudaimonic well-being are distal whereas self-expression values are more proximal influencers of individual entrepreneurship. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings. ItemConsequences of cultural leadership styles for social entrepreneurship: a theoretical framework(2019) Muralidharan, Etayankara; Pathak, SauravThe purpose of this conceptual article is to understand how the interplay of national-level institutions of culturally endorsed leadership styles, government effectiveness, and societal trust affects individual likelihood to become social entrepreneurs. We present an institutional framework comprising cultural leadership styles (normative institutions), government effectiveness (regulatory institutions), and societal trust (cognitive institutions) to predict individual likelihood of social entrepreneurship. Using the insight of culture–entrepreneurship fit and drawing on institutional configuration perspective we posit that culturally endorsed implicit leadership theories (CLTs) of charismatic and participatory leadership positively impact the likelihood of individuals becoming social entrepreneurs. Further, we posit that this impact is particularly pronounced when a country’s regulatory quality manifested by government effectiveness is supportive of social entrepreneurship and when there exist high levels of societal trust. Research on CLTs and their impact on entrepreneurial behavior is limited. We contribute to comparative entrepreneurship research by introducing a cultural antecedent of social entrepreneurship in CLTs and through a deeper understanding of their interplay with national-level institutions to draw the boundary conditions of our framework. ItemContextualizing emotional intelligence for commercial and social entrepreneurship(2023) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraRendering four emotional competencies of trait emotional intelligence (EI) model, well-being, self-control, adaptability, and sociability as culturally contextualized societal psychological capital, we explain their cross-cultural comparative influences on individual social and commercial entrepreneurship (SE and CE). We use psychological capital theory to establish EI as one’s emotional competencies. Societies with augmented supply of individuals with such competencies will have higher reserves of positive psychological capital making EI as culturally contextualized that shape individual CE and SE. Using 30,924 responses from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey of 24 countries and supplementing data from World Values Survey (WVS), our multilevel analyses show that societal eudaimonic well-being and sociability increase likelihood of individual SE more than CE whereas societal hedonic well-being, adaptability, and self-control increase that of CE more than SE, implying that culturally contextualized EI shapes CE and SE differently across nations. Our findings offer policy implications for country-specific programs that taps into societal emotional competencies for entrepreneurship pedagogy, sustainability goals and EI-based training for entrepreneurs. ItemContextualizing technology adoption and self-expression for technology entrepreneurial innovation(2020) Muralidharan, Etayankara; Pathak, SauravThis article highlights the role of societal-level self-expression values and national-level extent of technology adoption for individual-level likelihood of engaging in technology entrepreneurial innovation. We posit that the effect of self-expression on entrepreneurial innovation is indirect – mediated positively by national-level extent of technology adoption, thereby rendering modes and mechanisms of technology adoption in a country as a more proximal whereas values as a more distal antecedent of technology entrepreneurial innovation. We infer that the benefits and effectiveness of government efforts geared towards improving formal institutional structures that assist technology entrepreneurial innovation would however only be felt if those that adopt newer technologies are self-expressive in the first place. Implications for theory, policy, and future empirical research are also discussed. ItemCorporate social 'irresponsibility': are consumers' biases in attribution of blame helping companies in product-harm crises involving hybrid products?(2015) Carvalho, Sergio; Muralidharan, Etayankara; Bapuji, HariIn recent years, there have been several high-profile recalls of hybrid products (those where organizations in multiple countries take part in the design, component sourcing, manufacturing, and marketing of a product). If consumers perceive a global firm to be responsible for the recall, then it will reduce their brand equity. Therefore, global firms may respond in ethically questionable ways to justify themselves to important stakeholders and avoid blame. Understanding how stakeholders attribute blame for crises involving hybrid products is important to shed light on the unethical manner in which global firms might avoid blame in such situations. The research reported here shows that in a hybrid product crisis, consumers show a bias in favor of the brand company and against the manufacturing company. This bias is more pronounced when the country of manufacture has an unfavorable image or when consumers lack familiarity with the recalled brand. Ambiguous recall announcements by companies that fail to provide a specific and clear reason for the product defect prompt consumers to assume that a manufacturing flaw caused the product defect. As a result, consumers reduce their attribution of blame for the brand company, and thus its brand equity is maintained. ItemCulturally endorsed leadership styles and entrepreneurial behaviors of women(2018) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraExtant research has yet to find leadership patterns that are particularly relevant to entrepreneurship. While the entrepreneurial process has previously been seen in the same vein as that of leadership, the links between leadership styles and women entrepreneurship studies have been conducted against a masculine backdrop. Although recent studies have begun to explore the relationship between the two fields, there are limited studies considering the relationship from a gender perspective. Considering that entrepreneurs are embedded in contexts, our study specifically seeks to address the above gap by examining how culturally endorsed leadership styles influence women's entrepreneurial behaviors. ItemCulturally endorsed leadership styles and entrepreneurial behaviours in Asia(2017) Muralidharan, EtayankaraExtant research has yet to find leadership patterns that are particularly relevant to entrepreneurship (Vecchio, 2003). While the entrepreneurial process has previously been seen in the same vein as that of leadership (Cogliser & Brigham, 2004), the links between leadership styles and entrepreneurship have not been thoroughly understood. With regard to leadership research in Asia, extant research suggests that one focus of future research should be to identify the outcomes of leadership (Liden, 2012). Further, since Asian countries are characterized by high-context cultures, appropriate behavior of leaders is dependent on the situation in which such behavior unfolds (Hofstede, 2001; Liden, 2012). Our study specifically seeks to address the above gaps by examining how culturally endorsed leadership styles influence entrepreneurial behaviors in an Asian context. In doing so, we also address the call by scholars to incorporate multilevel research designs that cut across levels of analysis in entrepreneurship research. ItemDigitalization, institutions and new venture internationalization(2022) Brieger, Steven A.; Chowdhury, Farzana; Hechavarría, Diana M.; Muralidharan, Etayankara; Pathak, Saurav; Lam, Yan TongThis study examines the effect of digitalization on the internationalization of new ventures and further investigates the influence of a home country’s presence of institutional voids and digital infrastructure on the extent of internationalization by new ventures, with the prediction that a home country’s institutional voids and a weak digital infrastructure strengthen the positive relationship between new ventures’ digitalization and internationalization. Applying multilevel modeling on a sample of more than 6000 entrepreneurs from 62 countries the study offers empirical support for these predictions. The findings are robust to alternative specifications. Entrepreneurs using the internet to sell their products and services are more likely to focus on customers in foreign markets when they face institutional voids and a lack of digital infrastructure in their home countries. The study contributes as follows: From a theoretical view, it provides a better understanding of the boundary conditions of the digitalization-new venture internationalization linkage. From a practical perspective, the findings of the study suggest the complementary roles of institutional voids and digital infrastructure at home to help entrepreneurs grow domestically and facilitate their internationalization. ItemDoes China’s outward direct investment improve the institutional quality of the belt and road countries?(2020) Pan, Chunyang; Wei, William Xiaojun; Muralidharan, Etayankara; Liao, Jia; Andreosso-O'Callaghan, BernadetteThis article investigates the effects of China’s outward direct investment (ODI) on the institutional quality of the Belt and Road (B&R) countries. Based on a panel data set of 63 B&R countries during the period 2003 to 2016, we find that China’s ODI improves the institutional quality of B&R countries not only in the short run but also in the long run. Further, although China’s ODI exerts no differential impacts on host country institutional dimensions of “control of corruption,” “government effectiveness,” and “political stability” in countries with different natural resource endowments, it improves their institutional dimensions of “regulatory quality” and “rule of law,” implying that China’s ODI may help the host B&R countries minimize the “resource curse”. As one of the most important strategies for China’s opening-up development in the current era, the B&R initiative serves as means to promote sustainable development of B&R countries. The article therefore contributes to existing scholarship on the institutional effects of China’s ODI and sheds light on the mechanisms that drive sustainable development. ItemEconomic inequality and social entrepreneurship(2018) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraThis article explores the extent to which income inequality and income mobility—both considered indicators of economic inequality and conditions of formal regulatory institutions (government activism)—facilitate or constrain the emergence of social entrepreneurship. Using 77,983 individual-level responses obtained from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey of 26 countries, and supplementing with country-level data obtained from the Global Competitiveness Report of the World Economic Forum, our results from multilevel analyses demonstrate that country-level income inequality increases the likelihood of individual-level engagement in social entrepreneurship, while income mobility decreases this likelihood. Further, income mobility negatively moderates the influence of income inequality on social entrepreneurship, such that the condition of low income mobility and high income inequality is a stronger predictor of social entrepreneurship. We discuss implications and limitations of our study, and we suggest avenues for future research. ItemThe effect of firm ownership on time to recall(2021) Tiwari, Sejal; Muralidharan, EtayankaraWe examine the impact of firm ownership (public vs. private) and perception of the reputation of the quality of suppliers of the country from where products are sourced on time to recall of defective products from the market. Operationalizing time-to-recall as the time that has elapsed from the date of first sale in the market to the date it was recalled, we test the influence of the interplay between firm ownership and perception of the reputation of the quality of suppliers of the country on time to recall using data on 400 toy recalls issued in the United States during 2007-2018. We find that time to recall is shorter for publicly traded firms than it is for private firms. This effect is more pronounced when the products are sourced from countries with poor perception of the reputation of the quality of suppliers. We discuss research and managerial implications of our findings. ItemEntrepreneurial re-entry post an economic crisis(2022) Muralidharan, Etayankara; Pathak, SauravIn this chapter, insights from prospect theory and institutional theory are used to explore how societal level well-being and inter-personal trust interplay with political stability of the country to facilitate re-entry of entrepreneurs who have exited because of an economic crisis. The conceptual model presented suggests that informal institutional conditions of societal well-being, inter-personal trust, and their interplay with political stability of the country are key to subsequent entrepreneurial intensions by entrepreneurs who have exited unfavourably during an economic crisis. The suggestions of the model are used to discuss implications related to the present COVID-19 pandemic and survival of entrepreneurship after the pandemic. ItemExamining antecedents of repatriates’ job engagement and its influence on turnover intention(2022) Cave, Adam H.; Roberts, Michael J. D.; Muralidharan, EtayankaraRepatriate turnover is a key challenge for Multinational Enterprises (MNEs). While MNEs expect to retain returning employees (i.e., repatriates) and to benefit from new knowledge and experience they bring back from international assignments, a number of studies identify high rates of repatriate turnover intentions. This paper draws insights from social exchange theory and psychological contracts. By using survey data from 221 repatriates from the U.S., the paper presents an empirical study of the antecedents of repatriate turnover. Our findings demonstrate that repatriate perceptions of recognition of foreign experience, involvement, team orientation, and application of knowledge, had a significant impact on turnover intention and this impact was felt through repatriate job engagement i.e., repatriate job engagement significantly mediated the influence of recognition of foreign experience, involvement, team orientation, and application of knowledge on turnover intention. While the study findings contribute to the theoretical underpinnings of the antecedents of repatriate turnover it also informs how MNEs can apply new strategies and initiatives that heighten repatriate retention rates and prevent knowledge slippage and the loss of highly valued people soon after they return from international assignments. ItemGLOBE leadership dimensions: implications for cross-country entrepreneurship research(2018) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraWe use the understanding of culturally endorsed leadership theories (CLTs), and also draw upon theoretical and empirical insights from the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) project (Dorfman et al., 2012), to propose future research avenues that contribute to the literature exploring the role of cultural leadership styles in influencing entrepreneurial behaviors across different cultures. Our attempt here is to address both of these gaps and add to extant literature that integrates leadership and entrepreneurship research by introducing a cultural leadership paradigm that advances our understanding of the emergence of entrepreneurs as leaders across different cultures. ItemHazard severity and time to recall: evidence from the toy industry(2022) Muralidharan, Etayankara; Hora, Manpreet; Bapuji, HariThe time a firm takes to recall products that pose severe hazards has serious implications for the firm and its stakeholders. We examine the role of hazard severity and investigate how it influences the impact of recall experience, type of product defect, and product price on time to recall. Operationalizing time-to-recall as the number of days that elapsed from the time a product was first sold in the market to the date it was recalled, we test our hypotheses using data on 833 toy recalls issued by 445 firms in the U.S. during 1988-2018. We find that, under conditions of high hazard severity, time to recall is longer for (i) firms with past recall experience, (ii) recalls of products involving design defects, and (iii) recalls of high-priced products. We discuss the implications of our findings for research and practice. ItemHome country factors and the decision to internationalize technology-based new ventures: a multi-level study of early-stage entrepreneurs(2014) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, Etayankara; Laplume, AndréUsing Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey of over 25,000 nascent and new entrepreneurs from 2005-2008 and 45 countries, we predict their internationalization decisions based on three domestic institutions. Results indicate that stronger regulatory environment, smaller home market, and weaker innovation environment favor internationalization. Interaction results indicate that strong regulatory environment helps overcome the negative effect of a large home market towards internationalization and that it also facilitates internationalization by aiding to acquire resources necessary for innovation that may be lacking domestically. Finally, a larger home market size reduces the need to internationalize to compensate for lacking innovation resources. ItemHome country institutions and international entrepreneurship - a multi-level framework - institutions and international entrepreneurship(2020) Muralidharan, Etayankara; Pathak, SauravThe extent of internationalization by early-stage entrepreneurial firms may depend upon home country institutional conditions. Using insights from institutional theory, this chapter suggests that national-level institutional conditions facilitate or constrain the efforts made by early-stage entrepreneurs to internationalize. Given the strong linkages between entrepreneurs and the enterprises they drive, the multi-level framework proposed in this study suggests that a strong national system of innovation and better regulatory quality, which supports early internationalization by new entrepreneurial firms. Smaller domestic markets induce such firms to explore overseas markets for their products. The framework also suggests that a strong regulatory environment positively moderates the effects of national innovation systems and domestic market size on the extent of early internationalization. While implications for the internationalization process are discussed, specific reference to the importance of policy to support internationalization by early entrepreneurial firms is made. ItemImplications of culturally implicit perspective of emotional intelligence(2020) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraThis article proposes a culturally implicit perspective of emotional intelligence and introduces the notion of culture-specific emotional intelligence (CSEI). Emotional intelligence (EI) as a construct has predominantly been associated with the individual. Given that emotions are also implicit beliefs and that their experience, expression, and management are known to be driven by cultural values, we suggest EI to be culturally embedded. We therefore suggest that EI is culture-specific. Culture-specific EI serves as an important social resource affecting behaviors. We provide a brief review of literature that elucidates the multi-level nature of EI and highlights the role of culture as both antecedent and moderator of CSEI. Implications for theory and cross-cultural phenomena are discussed.