Browsing Faculty of Health and Community Studies by Author "Chahal, Paul"
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ItemCan mental training help to improve shooting accuracy?(1999) Couture, Roger T.; Singh, Mohan; Lee, Wayne; Chahal, Paul; Wankel, Leonard; Oseen, Margaret; Wheeler, GaryThe study investigated the effects of two mental training strategies separately and combined on subjects’ shooting performance following an endurance march. Further, the study examined the suitability of a ten‐session training programme for the police force. On Trial 1, following a three hour march, 44 subjects shot 25 rounds. Subjects were then randomly assigned to four groups (biofeedback, relaxation, combined biofeedback and relaxation and control). After two weeks of mental training, subjects performed both tasks again on Trial 2. A repeated two‐way ANOVA indicated a significant improvement (p < 0.01) in shooting accuracy by the combined group. Suitability for this mental training programme was strongly supported by the experimental groups (71 per cent to 80 per cent). Subjects were generally better able to relax and focus. They were also more aware of their body and their physiological control. Results are discussed in light of potential benefits for cognitive strategies in precision tasks following endurance activities. ItemContent reinforcement of cell and membrane transport between kinesiology and arts & science students(2023) Ma, Robin; Chahal, Paul; Narnaware, YuwarajThe present study evaluates content reinforcement of cell membrane transport over eight weeks for Physical Education and Arts and Science physiology students. The highest retention for physical education students was in weeks 1 and 3, whereas for the Arts and Science students, it was the highest in weeks 2 and 3. Knowledge was comparatively higher for Physical Education students than for the Arts and Science students. Therefore, relatively more robust interventional strategies need to be implemented for Arts and Science students to improve knowledge retention. ItemContent retention of cell and membrane transport for physical education students(2023) Martin, Noah; Chahal, Paul; Narnaware, YuwarajHuman physiology is considered a foundational course in the Physical Education program. The objective of the present study was to evaluate content retention of cell and plasma membrane transport for first-year Physical Education University Transfer physiology students over eight weeks. Results show that the knowledge retention was observed to be week-specific, highest in weeks one and three and lower for other weeks. Therefore, content reinforcement can be used as an interventional strategy to improve long-term knowledge retention in Physical Education University Transfer students. ItemEffects of mental training on the performance of military endurance and precision tasks in the Canadian Forces(1991) Couture, Roger T.; Singh, Mohan; Lee, Wayne; Chahal, Paul; Wankel, L.; Oseen, Margaret; Wheeler, G.This study investigated the effect of two cognitive training strategies, associative and dissociative thinking, on soldiers' ability to perform a weight-loaded march. Forty Infantry soldiers from the Canadian Army completed three hours of marching. Following the march, subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups: associative (biofeedback), dissociative (meditation), combined associative-dissociative (biofeedback and meditation) and control. After two weeks of mental training, the soldier performed the march again. Analyses showed that all soldiers had improved in their ability to estimate the amount of time remaining in the march and in their ability to reduce heart rate levels while marching. Significant changes however were not found in perceived fatigue levels and in rates of perceived exertion during the march. Results are discussed in light of these findings. ItemThe impact of content reinforcement on physiological knowledge retention in nursing students(2020) Narnaware, Yuwaraj; Neumeier, Melanie; Gutierrez, J. Claudio; Chahal, PaulThere is growing concern over the loss of anatomical and physiological knowledge in medical, allied-health & nursing students over time. Numerous studies have demonstrated the difficulty of the students in these disciplines to retain and apply anatomical knowledge as they progress through their programs of study (Narnaware and Neumeier, 2019). However, physiological knowledge retention has not been studied as extensively as anatomical knowledge retention in health care disciplines, with very few studies focusing on nursing students (Aari et al., 2004). Of those studies, most are carried out after graduation (Aari et al., 2004), or are focused on a single or limited number of organ systems (Pourshanazari et al., 2013). We have previously shown that physiology students retained approximately 86.6% of their first-year physiological knowledge over four months (Narnaware et al., 2020). Objectives: To improve the acquisition and retention of physiological knowledge, the present study aims to develop an interventional strategy that includes the repeated assessment of vascular physiology knowledge over an eight-week period. ItemImpact of lack of in-class and online activities due to COVID-19 on anatomy & physiology class average in nursing students(2021) Narnaware, Yuwaraj; Chahal, PaulBoth human anatomy and physiology serve as prerequisite courses for admission to the Bachelor of Nursing (BScN) and Bachelor of Psychiatric Nursing (BPN) programs at MacEwan University. The teaching and learning of these subjects are influenced by several factors, including the COVID 19 pandemic (Narnaware and Neumeier, 2020; Syed et al., 2021). In early March of 2020, this pandemic caused the emergency pedagogical transformation of nursing curricula, forcing many educational institutions worldwide to switch from face to face classroom teaching to an online, virtual platform. As a result, many active learning modalities such as the use of technology, labs, cadaver and prosection dissections, in class exams, and in person contacts with students were moved to an online, virtual learning (Syed et al., 2021). This has forced students to adopt self directed learning approaches. The impact of the shift from active learning strategies to self directed learning strategies on academic performance in nursing students taking anatomy and physiology during post COVID 19 period has not yet been investigated. In this study, we seek to determine the impact of the lack of various in class activities on class average & grade point average (GPA) in anatomy & physiology courses for nursing students. ItemImpact of the on-line and in-class activities on class average in anatomy & physiology in nursing students(2019) Narnaware, Yuwaraj; Chahal, PaulIn this study, we seek to determine the impact of various on-line & in-class activities on class average & grade point average (GPA) in anatomy & physiology courses for nursing students. ItemPhysical fitness and performance standards for the Canadian army(1990) Lee, S. W.; Chahal, Paul; Singh, Mohan; Wheeler, G.Examines physical fitness standards and testing, with particular emphasis on the fitness requirements of the Canadian Army. The importance of physical fitness to the Canadian Army is reviewed and physical fitness tests administered in the Canadian military are analyzed. An overview of Canadian and international fitness testing includes the following tests: the Canadian Army uses CF EXPRES Programme derived from the Canadian Standardized Test of Fitness, the Battle Efficiency Test (BET), a 19-item Indoor Standardized Obstacle Course (ISOC); United States Army uses the Army Physical Readiness Test (APRT); the Australian Army utilizes the Physical Training Test (PTT), the British Army has three types of tests including the Army Personal Fitness Assessment; the Swedish Army, the Physical Working Capacity test and the Soviet Army, the GTO programme which means Ready for Labour and Defence. ItemPhysical fitness and work performance standards: a proposed approach(1992) Chahal, Paul; Lee, S. W.; Oseen, Margaret; Singh, Mohan; Wheeler, G.Traditionally physical performance standards have been developed by a process of normative referencing and are generally established on the bases of age and gender. Many of the jobs assigned to workers can be very physically demanding and result in injury. In addition, men and women may lack physical capacity to fulfil the requirements of such jobs. To satisfy Canadian Human Rights legislation requirements of equal opportunity, regardless of age and gender, the establishment of task-related physical performance standards is an appropriate and desirable approach. These standards must be based on the physical requirements of the jobs and should be within the physiological capacities of the workers. In this paper, the authors have proposed a model to develop task-related performance standards. The purposes, physical capacities, and steps for development of such standards are explained. Applicability of related tests and models also have been outlined. Such an approach should result in a drop of work-related injuries, reduce work for the Workers Compensation Boards and provide greater job satisfaction for the employees. The paper presents a framework for development of specific physical work performance standards for different industries. ItemPhysiological knowledge retention in second-year bachelor of science and psychiatric nursing students(2023) Narnaware, Yuwaraj; Pawliuk, Brandi; Neumeier, Melanie; Cuschieri, Sarah; Chahal, PaulNumerous studies have demonstrated the difficulty of retaining and applying anatomical and physiological knowledge experienced by students in medical and allied health disciplines, although few studies focus on nursing students (Narnaware and Neumeier, 2020, 2021a). MacEwan University students in the Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) and the Bachelor in Psychiatric Nursing (BPN) programs take the same first-year physiology course. With the understanding that discipline choice potentially impacts knowledge retention, this study aimed to determine the overall difference in physiological knowledge retention between second-year BScN and BPN students and if there is a difference based on the organ system. ItemPhysiological knowledge retention in second-year nursing students(2021) Narnaware, Yuwaraj; Neumeier, Melanie; Chahal, PaulDespite anatomy and physiology being foundational courses in medical, allied health and nursing programs, there is growing concern that students are not retaining the essential bioscience knowledge in these courses over time (McVicar et al., 2015). Numerous studies have demonstrated the difficulty of medical, nursing, and allied health care students to retain and apply anatomical knowledge as they progress through their programs of study (Narnaware & Neumeier, 2020b). However, physiological knowledge retention has not been studied as extensively as anatomical knowledge retention in health care disciplines, with very few studies focusing on nursing students ( Aari et al., 2004). Of those studies, most are carried out after graduation ( Aari et al., 2004) or are focused on a single or limited number of organ systems ( Pourshanazari et al., 2013). The present study aims to determine the level of physiological knowledge retained by nursing students in the second year between completing their physiology course in first year nursing and enrollment in the second year pathophysiology course. ItemThird-year nursing student’s physiological knowledge retention(2023) Narnaware, Yuwaraj; Foster-Boucher, Caroline; Neumeier, Melanie; Chahal, PaulAnatomy and physiology are considered foundational courses in medical, nursing and allied-health care programs. However, there is a growing concern that students struggle to retain this essential knowledge over time. Numerous studies have demonstrated the difficulty of medical, nursing and allied healthcare students to retain and apply anatomical knowledge as they progress through their programs of study (Doomernik et al., 2017). However, physiological knowledge retention has not been studied as extensively as anatomical knowledge retention in health care disciplines, with very few studies focusing on nursing students (Aari et al., 2004). Of those studies, most are conducted after graduation (Aari et al., 2004) or are focused on a single or a limited number of organ systems (Pourshanazari et al., 2013). The present study aims to determine the level of physiological knowledge retained by nursing students in the third year between completing their physiology course in first-year nursing and third-year Nursing Care of Families with Young Children course. To answer this question, nursing students were quizzed on ten organ systems using the online quizzing system Kahoot. Each Kahoot quiz included nine to eleven knowledge and comprehension-level multiple-choice questions. These scores were compared to first-year quiz scores on the same content to determine overall knowledge retention over two years. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS II, and means were compared using 2-sample t-tests. The scores are described for each organ system by reporting the mean and standard deviation (±SD). Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05 for all tests. The mean score of questions from all organ systems in year one was 62.89 ± 10.49 (±SD). Comparing that score to matched test items evaluated in the Nursing Care of Families with Young Children course, there is a decrease in the overall mean score from 62.89 ± 10.49 (±SD) to 50.95 ± 13.02 (±SD). This equates to an 88.06% retention rate, or 11.94% knowledge loss within two years. Organ-specific knowledge retention was highest for inflammation (100%), respiratory physiology (99.10%), and vascular physiology (95.01%), followed by blood (89.16%), digestive physiology (86.28%), endocrinology (83.76%), defences (82.50%) and renal physiology (82.19%). Retention was comparatively lower for fluid and electrolyte balance (79.36%) and reproductive physiology (77.54%). These results demonstrate a high level of knowledge retention overall, with variations in retention being system specific. The level of knowledge retention in this study was significantly higher than previous rates reported in medical and allied-health students (Pourshanazari et al., 2013) and higher than anatomical knowledge retention levels in the same population (Narnaware and Neumeier, 2021). However, knowledge retention in the third year is not significantly different from the second year (Narnaware et al., 2021).