Browsing by Author "Gulayets, Michael"
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ItemAssessment of sex offenders using standardized slide stimuli and procedures: A multisite study(1995) Laws, D. R.; Gulayets, Michael; Frenzel, R. R.Thirty sex offenders were assessed for age and gender preference with a set of standardized erotic slides and an assessment protocol which specified each step in the procedure. This procedure was intended to be a normative study to be carried out at multiple sites in the United States and Canada. It was hypothesized that (1) the procedure would discriminate child molesters as heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual, (2) the procedure would differentiate child molesters from normal subjects, and (3) both of these hypotheses would be confirmed at all sites. Data are reported here for 20 of the 30 subjects tested in groups labeled heterosexual pedophilia, homosexual pedophilia, heterosexual incest, and rape. Although the groups were quite small and measured response levels were low, good discriminations were obtained between groups and stimulus categories. It was concluded that the obtained data confirmed Hypothesis 1 and partially confirmed Hypothesis 2. Although the assessment protocol had to be altered to suit local conditions, it proved adequate and could serve as a guide in future standardization studies. Of particular interest was the finding that a 30-sec slide exposure was effective in producing discriminations in the critical categories related to the tested hypotheses. ItemBest practices for maintaining housing with intellectually disabled John Howard clients(2017) Quinlan, Laura; Gulayets, MichaelIntellectually disabled offenders are a heterogenous group with varying needs and abilities. Therefore, further study is required to meet the needs of this diverse population that is overrepresented in the criminal justice system. The objective of this research is to create a sense of understanding in regards to housing and support services needed for criminalized or high needs individuals with intellectual disabilities who are housed at Independence Apartments, a federal halfway house run by the Edmonton John Howard Society. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders of the Persons with Developmental Disabilities (PDD) program at Independence Apartments. These stakeholders included professionals, PDD clients, and non PDD clients also housed at Independence Apartments. This presentation examines the effectiveness of having both PDD and non PDD programs running under one roof and explores the support service needs of the PDD clients housed at Independence Apartments. Preliminary results show that moving the PDD program to a separate facility would be beneficial for the PDD client group because the PDD clients tend to have difficulty following house rules and are often taken advantage of by the clients in the halfway house program. ItemChallenges and support for LGBTQ+ at-risk youth(2019) Reynolds, Dorothy L.; Gulayets, Michael; Bereska, TamiThe number of people who identify as LGBTQ+ has been increasing, especially amongst young people. The LGBTQ+ community faces many challenges. This paper examines responses to at-risk youth who identify as LGBTQ+ in Edmonton, Canada and L’viv, Ukraine from a family structure level, social support structure level, and governmental programs or policies. It also explores how different reactions - such as feminism or patriarchy – have specific implications for these youth. Finally, it looks at how support, activism, advocacy and acceptance, or fear and anger, can create a change within society. ItemDisinformation: the hidden weapon of the Russia-Ukraine War(2022) Haug, Harrison; Gulayets, MichaelThis presentation aims to examine the usage of disinformation in the Russia-Ukraine War. Disinformation is a purposefully false piece of information that seeks to influence people. I argue that this is one of, if not the most prominent, disinformation wars that we have seen. Russia is a leading proponent of disinformation as they are trying to frame the invasion of Ukraine as having a more altruistic purpose. During this examination of disinformation, I will be looking at a few select pieces of disinformation from the perspective of both Russia and Ukraine and the effect that this disinformation has on both the Russians and Ukrainians. The result of this disinformation war is that Ukraine is constantly on the defense and continually trying to provide the truth to its citizens and the rest of the western world. NATO, the European Union, and the United States are consistently fact-checking and disproving the claims that Russia and its state media make. ItemDisinformation: the hidden weapon of the Russia-Ukraine War(2022) Haug, Harrison; Gulayets, MichaelThis presentation aims to examine the usage of disinformation in the Russia-Ukraine War. Disinformation is a purposefully false piece of information that seeks to influence people. I argue that this is one of, if not the most prominent, disinformation wars that we have seen. Russia is a leading proponent of disinformation as they are trying to frame the invasion of Ukraine as having a more altruistic purpose. During this examination of disinformation, I will be looking at a few select pieces of disinformation from the perspective of both Russia and Ukraine and the effect that this disinformation has on both the Russians and Ukrainians. The result of this disinformation war is that Ukraine is constantly on the defense and continually trying to provide the truth to its citizens and the rest of the western world. NATO, the European Union, and the United States are consistently fact-checking and disproving the claims that Russia and its state media make. ItemEducational responses to socioeconomic inequality(2019) Bures, Laura; Gulayets, Michael; Bereska, TamiSocioeconomic inequality continues to be a major concern both internationally and within Canada. Educational outcomes for children are one of the key areas affected by this reality. Schools are considered institutions responsible for promoting the social mobility of children. However, due to increasing social, political, and economic disparities among families, schools have redesigned themselves to ensure this idea persists. This paper examines how parental inconsistencies, lack of supportive home environments, and financial burdens associated with low socioeconomic status families have a negative influence on children’s educational outcomes. It investigates why schools have become concerned with implementing programs to help alleviate the effects of socioeconomic inequalities on children and their families. A discussion of the various strategies schools have put in place to integrate struggling children, families, and communities is included. Issues arise in regard to how these programs will be funded, who is responsible for these children within schools, and recommendations going forward. School boards need to be allocated more funding and support from macro level institutions such as the government and health boards if they hope to find a solution. ItemThe effects of social factors on police interactions with youth(2019) Hankewich, Ryan; Gulayets, Michael; Bereska, TamiIt has been recognized, socially and legally, that youth require different treatment and methodologies by the criminal justice system compared to adults. As the first point of contact within the criminal justice system, police officers’ perceptions of youth can have profound effects upon the youth they encounter. This paper critically reviews how these perceptions are formed and influenced by multiple levels of social factors. This analysis examines societal factors at the macro, meso, and micro levels, and how they influence police perceptions of youth, resulting police actions, and what level of police discretion they employ. ItemAn evaluation of a new service delivery model at the Chimo Youth Retreat Centre(2017) Akpoghomeh, Oshone; Gulayets, MichaelThis research project evaluates the practice shift from a risk aversion model to an Outcomes Based Service Delivery / Collaborative Service Delivery (OBSD/CSD) model. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the perceptions of stakeholders both from Chimo Youth Retreat Centre and Child and Family Services (CFS) its collaborating partner, regarding this shift in practice. This was done through a mixed method of surveys and in-depth interviews with stakeholders, which include front-line workers, management and parents of clients of the program. Other objectives included finding out how stakeholders involved have been able to transition to this current model and also determining what strengths and challenges they have working under this new model. ItemExamining the use of the recovery model with individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder: Revealing tensions between risk management strategies and recovery(2020) Gulayets, Michael; Sawyer, AshlynIn providing the care and control of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD), forensic psychiatry attempts to balance the protection of society with the treatment of mental illness. A new approach in mental health care is the recovery model, which centres on the understanding that there should be a recovery in, not a recovery from serious mental illness. In clinical practice, this means that treatment decisions should be made in collaboration with patients and include their personal circumstances, such as criminality and aspirations. Concepts that intersect with these goals are elements like choice, hope, personal responsibility and empowerment. This paper examines the implementation of the recovery model in forensic mental health settings and provides an in-depth exploration and evaluation of the model as it is practised at a forensic psychiatric outpatient clinic with individuals found NCRMD. Ten participants, including both individuals found NCRMD and psychiatric professionals, took part in semi-structured interviews. Qualitative data analysis of the interview transcripts identified the following six themes: choice, recovery, hope, responsibility, agency, and risk. This paper examines the experiences, perceptions, and challenges of implementing the recovery model in a forensic psychiatric setting and compares its strategies to the predominant risk-based forensic practices. The analysis suggests that it is difficult to implement the recovery model in a forensic setting without compromising either the recovery model or the risk management approach. ItemExploring differences between successful and unsuccessful mental disorder defences(2016) Gulayets, MichaelBeyond the legal definition of criminal insanity, the verdict of “not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder” (NCRMD) is a social construction. This study explores the differences between individuals who raise the mental disorder defence and are found NCRMD and those who raise this defence and are found guilty. Files of individuals assessed for criminal responsibility over a two-year period on a remand unit at a forensic psychiatric hospital were examined. Approximately one quarter (N = 36) of these individuals were found NCRMD, and the remaining 102 individuals were found guilty. The study examines differences between these groups along various dimensions such as demographic characteristics, offence characteristics, victim characteristics, criminal and psychiatric history, and psychiatric opinion. The results indicate that the most salient factors that distinguish between the two groups are factors related to psychiatric opinion (e.g., diagnosis of a psychotic disorder or recommendations psychiatrists make in reports to the court). The article concludes with a discussion of the impact of psychiatric opinion on the determination of criminal insanity and the apparent forensication of legal and mental health systems. ItemHow does hegemonic society perpetuate LGBTQ+ discrimination through the institutions and ideologies of law, education, and religion?(2019) Leibel, Isha; Gulayets, Michael; Bereska, TamiResearch has shown that the institutions and ideologies behind hegemonic society’s laws, educational system, and religions, have been integral to the discrimination of LGBTQ+ youth. To better understand the specific aspects of each institution, and how they directly affect LGBTQ+ youth, this paper critically examines these institutions using both the traditional heteronormative lens, as well as the more recent LGBTQ+ friendly lens. Issues such as the role of homophobic political leaders, and the laws they pass, are considered. As the majority of youth spend their formative years in an educational setting, the role of teachers, peers, and parents are all considered when discussions of ‘coming out’ or sexual education is brought to light. Furthermore, in an attempt to understand the coexistence of LGBTQ+ youth and religious education, comparisons between different school settings are taken into consideration. Following the review, different avenues are suggested to further study this topic in order to create a more inclusive, safe, and accepting society for all sexualities and gender identities. ItemHow youth are defined: criminal justice system vs social services institutions(2019) Brosseau, Alaina; Gulayets, Michael; Bereska, TamiThis project examines alternative measures to charging at-risk youth and the importance of transitional programs due to the ineffectiveness of punitive approaches. Punitive approaches are known for worsening issues with delinquent youth, such as recidivism. Youth are optimal to examine when tackling socioeconomic issues such as these because they are young enough that intervention can be done to set them on the right path. This intervention can prevent harms that would otherwise define them for the rest of their lives. There are shortcomings in the way society handles delinquent youth, and many are trapped in their criminal label. Because of this, they often continue to offend and ‘rebel’ against the system. Alternative measures to charging youth and transitional programs could make the difference in the way delinquent youth choose to move forward as adult members of society, potentially preventing criminal career formation. ItemThe integrated threat and risk assessment centre: A program evaluation investigating the implementation of threat management recommendations(2015) Ennis, Liam; Hargreaves, Terren; Gulayets, MichaelThe goal of threat assessment is violence prevention, and threat assessors endeavor to provide risk management recommendations that are practical, useful, and effective. However, the best laid threat management plans inevitably fail if they are never implemented. The current study focused on the Integrated Threat and Risk Assessment Centre (I-TRAC), a specialized unit that provides threat management consultation to police and social services. Survey and interview data were collected from I-TRAC stakeholders to investigate which case management recommendations tend to be implemented by those responsible for managing risk, and to inform our understanding of why other recommendations are disregarded. Results indicated that respondents valued threat assessment and management consultations provided by I-TRAC, and implemented most recommendations provided to them. Common reasons for not implementing risk management recommendations were identified, and recommendations for improving the collaborative process of threat management are discussed. ItemIs trauma a social phenomenon that leads to gang involvement?(2019) Leksen, Morgan; Gulayets, Michael; Bereska, TamiThis paper examines the effects of trauma on youth gang involvement. It focuses on the repercussions that trauma can have on youth, which may result in them looking for like-minded adolescents who are in gangs. The need for support can stem from the reoccurring trauma that the individuals face at an early age and the gang can appear as a safe haven from their lives. This paper argues that the experiences of direct and indirect trauma can put these adolescents on a different life path compared to their peers. Youth need to be actively supported in their families and in the education system in order to succeed. The way society reacts and responds to adolescents who are experiencing trauma will set the tone on how they develop in the future. These youth should be seen as a societal responsibility, and when they are left behind or fall through the cracks of certain social institutions, it should be seen as a failure by the social system and not the individual being seen as a failure. Because of these failures, trauma is a social phenomenon that can lead to youth gang involvement. ItemReligion and youth delinquency(2019) Erickson, Christine; Gulayets, Michael; Bereska, TamiThis project looks at the impact that religion has on youth delinquency. The project examines religion through social control theory and explores religion as an agent of social control for its members, in particular youth. The project analyses the relationship between religious affiliation and youth delinquency and considers how belonging to a religious community decreases the likelihood of youth participating in delinquent behaviors. The analysis suggests that being part of a strong community and having a positive value system reduces the likelihood of youth becoming delinquent. Additionally, this implies that there are ways to reduce the likelihood of delinquency occurring and that involvement in a religious community is a valuable method for keeping youth from becoming delinquent. ItemToday’s offender, tomorrow’s victim: analyzing the connections between offenders and victims(2020) Kurjata, Andie; Gulayets, MichaelThis presentation examines the link between victims and offenders and how these roles are often interchangeable when it comes to a youth’s involvement in crime. Usually, this connection is disregarded because of the focus on the immediate situation and not the youth’s experiences with both roles. Because of this strong association between offenders and victims, the focus of this paper is about what stops a victim from becoming an offender and vice versa. The aspects focused on are individual and social factors, as well as the interactions and overlap between these factors. Generally, it was found that the criminal justice system and social service supports tend to only focus on individual factors while ignoring the social environmental aspects. This presentation demonstrates the importance of not only acknowledging a youth's role as both an offender and victim, but also the importance of addressing all aspects around how and why they got involved in criminal activity. By understanding the significance of these factors, this information can be used and integrated into the criminal justice system to help youth reduce their involvement in crime or to provide supports that address the cycle of victimization and offending. ItemToday’s offender, tomorrow’s victim: analyzing the connections between offenders and victims(2019) Kurjata, Andie; Gulayets, Michael; Bereska, TamiThis paper examines the link between victims and offenders and how these roles are often interchangeable when it comes to a youth’s involvement in crime. Usually, this connection is disregarded because of the focus on the immediate situation and not the youth’s experiences with both roles. Because of this strong association between offenders and victims, the focus of this paper is about what stops a victim from becoming an offender and vice versa. The aspects focused on are individual and social factors, as well as the interactions and overlap between these factors. Generally, it was found that the criminal justice system and social service supports tend to only focus on individual factors while ignoring the social environmental aspects. This paper demonstrates the importance of not only acknowledging a youth's role as both an offender and victim, but also the importance of addressing all aspects around how and why they got involved in criminal activity. By understanding the significance of these factors, this information can be used and integrated into the criminal justice system to help youth reduce their involvement in crime or to provide supports that address the cycle of victimization and offending. ItemUsing clinical variables to evaluate treatment effectiveness in programmes for sexual offenders(2011) Jung, Sandy; Gulayets, MichaelTypically, sex offender programmes are evaluated using recidivism, a distal outcome measure. This paper proposes that sex offender programmes also incorporate proximal variables to evaluate treatment effectiveness. Proximal variables assess within treatment changes immediately following the intervention. To demonstrate this approach, the effectiveness of a sex offender treatment programme is evaluated using proximal variables, specifically locus of control, empathy, cognitive distortions and acceptance of responsibility. We provide the findings of this evaluation and discuss the implications of this approach. In particular, we conclude with the importance of identifying relevant treatment targets and selecting suitable proximal measures of those targets in evaluating treatment effectiveness. ItemYouth homelessness: a review of social programs(2019) Wilton, Lori; Gulayets, Michael; Bereska, TamiYouth homelessness is a complex problem in Canada. While social programs do exist to help homeless youth, there appears to be some confusion as to which program is best suited for helping homeless youth be successful in their lives. This paper examines how social programs help youth leave the streets. The paper analyzes three levels of social programs starting with informal programs, middle-mode programs and formal programs in an attempt to determine the best way to reintegrate homeless youth back into mainstream society. A close examination of social programs suggests that more funding is needed to provide more spaces for youth participation as well as emotional supports to provide stability in their lives. Currently, there are gaps between the social programs. Each program has its own individual rules for operation and does not adequately support transitioning youth. Youth homelessness occurs due to the breakdown of the micro, meso and macro level institutions leaving youth to attempt to take control of their own lives by living homeless.