Browsing by Author "Peace, Kristine"
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- ItemA comparison of memory for homicide, non-homicidal violence, and positive life experiences(2009) Woodworth, Michael; Porter, Stephen; Brinke, Leanne ten; Doucette, Naomi; Peace, Kristine; Campbell, Mary AnnDefendants commonly claim amnesia for their criminal actions especially in cases involving extreme violence. While some claims are malingered or result from physiological factors, other cases may represent genuine partial or complete amnesia resulting from the psychological distress and/or extreme emotion associated with the perpetration of the crime. Fifty Canadian homicide offenders described their memories of their homicide, a non-homicide violent offense, and their most positive adulthood life experience. Self-reported and objective measures of memories for these events revealed that homicides were recalled with the greatest level of detail and sensory information. Although dissociative tendencies were associated with a self-reported memory loss, objective measures of memory quality did not reflect this perceived impairment, suggesting a failure of meta-memory. Recollections of positive life events were superior to those of non-homicidal violence, possibly due to greater impact and meaning attached to such experiences. Findings suggest that memory for homicide typically is enhanced by the powerful emotion associated with its perpetration.
- ItemA longitudinal investigation of the reliability of memories for trauma and other emotional experiences(2004) Peace, Kristine; Porter, StephenThis study examined the relative consistency and characteristics of memories for trauma and other non-traumatic emotional experiences over time. A community sample of 52 participants who reported a recent traumatic event were asked to recall both the traumatic and a positive emotional experience in two interviews separated by approximately three months (M = 105.39 days). The recollections were elicited with either a free narrative, cognitive interview, guided imagery, or written narrative approach. Results indicated that traumatic experiences were recalled more reliably over time than other emotional experiences. Traumatic memory imagery tended to persist in memory (with no apparent impairment), whereas features of positive memories were subject to considerable distortion, regardless of interview style. The findings contribute to the understanding of the impact of trauma on memory with the passage of time.
- ItemAlexithymia, dissociation, and social desirability: investigating individual differences in the narrative content of false allegations of trauma(2008) Peace, Kristine; Bouvier, KristenThis study examined the potential influence of alexithymia, dissociation, and social desirability on the narrative features associated with truthful and fabricated traumatic events. Participants (N = 291) wrote narratives describing both genuine and fabricated traumas and completed scales measuring individual differences. Alexithymia was associated with less plausible reports (independent of veracity) and differential reporting of emotional details between narratives. Higher levels of dissociation were related to less coherent and plausible reports, and less contextual detail in fabricated reports. Further, coherence and plausibility ratings fluctuated between low, moderate, and high social desirability groups. These results suggest that individual difference factors are important considerations in the forensic assessment of the veracity of trauma reports.
- ItemAre memories for sexually traumatic events "special"? A within-subjects investigation of trauma and memory in a clinical sample(2008) Peace, Kristine; Porter, Stephen; Brinke, Leanne tenAccording to a long-standing clinical tradition, sexually traumatic experiences are processed and recalled differently from other experiences, often leading to memory impairment. In this study, we compared the characteristics of traumatic memories for sexual violence and two other types of emotional experiences. N=44 women recruited from a local sexual trauma agency were asked to recall and describe three autobiographical events: sexual abuse/assault, a non-sexual trauma, and a positive emotional event. The characteristics of the three memory types were compared on both subjective and objective measures. Further, the potential influences of level of traumatic impact and dissociation were assessed. Results indicated that memories for sexual trauma were not impaired or fragmented relative to other memories. Instead, memories for sexual trauma were associated with a remarkably high level of vividness, detail, and sensory components. Further, high levels of traumatic impact were not associated with memory impairment. Implications for the ongoing traumatic memory debate are discussed.
- ItemBaby it’s cold outside: use and interpretation of sexual coercion in relation to psychopathic traits(2019) Swanek, Jessie; Peace, KristineThe present study was designed in two parts (counterbalanced) to further our understanding of the relation between psychopathic traits and sexual coercion. Part 1 will investigate the association between psychopathic traits, sexual risk, and use of both overt (e.g., using physical force, use of drugs or alcohol) and covert (e.g., massaging, sweet talking, guilt-tripping) sexual coercion strategies. Part 2 will examine whether psychopathic traits alter perceptions of sexual coercion.
- ItemCold-blooded lie catchers? An investigation of psychopathy, emotional processing, and deception detection(2012) Peace, Kristine; Sinclair, SarahThe process of catching liars is challenging, though evidence suggests that deception detection abilities are influenced by the characteristics of the judge. This study examined individual differences in emotional processing and levels of psychopathic traits on the ability to judge the veracity of written narratives varying in emotional valence.
- ItemDo motivations for malingering matter? Symptoms of malingered PTSD as a function of motivation and trauma type(2011) Peace, Kristine; Masliuk, KimberlyPsychological disorders associated with traumatic events, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be prone to malingering due to the subjective nature of trauma symptomology. In general, symptoms tend to be inflated when an external reward (i.e., compensation) is associated with the claim. The present study was designed to test whether malingered claims of PTSD symptoms differed as a function of the type of trauma being malingered (accident, disaster, sexual assault) and the motivation for malingering (compensation, attention, revenge, no motivation). Participants were randomly assigned into conditions, given malingering instructions, and then asked to complete three measures of trauma symptoms (Impact of Event Scale—Revised; Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist; Trauma Symptom Inventory). Results indicated that participants in the sexual assault condition produced higher symptom reports on nearly all scales. Revenge and compensation motivations yielded elevated symptom scores. Further, individuals rated high in fantasy proneness and dissociation produced elevated scores on atypical responding and most clinical scales. More research is needed to examine the extent to which different motivations and trauma types influence symptom reporting.
- ItemDoes this LOOK like STALKING to you? factors associated with identification of stalking behaviours(2023) Robinson, Natasha; Peace, KristinePerceptions of stalking are highly variable, dependent upon personal definitions and experiences. For example, recent surveys have found that young persons view social media stalking as acceptable and not distressing. Similarly, popular media often depicts stalking variably as misguided romance to psychotic deviance. In Canada, legal definitions of stalking (criminal harassment) are predicated on the victim feeling fear for their personal safety. Given that stalking is a victim-defined crime, understanding the circumstances under which stalking is identified and reported is critical for awareness, support, and prevention efforts. The present study aims to evaluate stalking identification in relation to lived experience, beliefs/myth endorsement, and characteristics of the stalking incidents themselves (such as form, intensity, and escalation). Participants (N = 500+) will be provided vignettes that vary in accordance with our variables of interest. They will be asked to assess the scenarios and identify specific points at which they would identify the behaviours as stalking, fear-inducing, and when they would seek police intervention. We anticipate that participants who have not been stalked will fail to recognize harassing behaviours and may only view stalking as such when it involves frequent, intense, and physical episodes. That said, those with lived experience related to stalking may vary more, with the possibility of lowered recognition of stalking cues (as depictions may differ from personal experience) or greater sensitivity to stalking cues and earlier identification. Empirical studies on how stalking is perceived remain limited, despite widespread implications for victims, support, and criminal justice.
- ItemFaking faces: psychopathic traits and feigned emotional expressions(2017) Stewart, Jayme; Peace, KristineThe purpose of this study was to determine what effect psychopathic traits have on the ability to express both genuine and feigned emotional expressions through a detailed analysis of facial characteristics of emotion. Despite the wide array of research on psychopathic traits and emotional dysfunction, most studies have focused on recognition rather than expression of emotion. Participants (n = 121) were assessed for psychopathic traits and randomly assigned into a feigned or genuine emotional condition, and asked to display each of the six core emotions (i.e., happiness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust, and sadness). Each face was then coded for the presence of facial musculature action units using a standardized coding system. Results indicated that those feigned group produced more authentic facial expressions than their genuine counterparts. Limited main effects were found related to psychopathy and overall facial expressions; however, interesting patterns of specific action units were noted. Specifically, those high in psychopathic traits engaged in more authentic and pronounced expressions of specific facial musculature movements in some emotional expressions (i.e., fear and disgust). Implications concerning methods of coding, emotion induction, and facial affective mimicry are discussed.
- ItemFifty shades of risk: psychopathic traits, gender and risky behaviour(2016) Wallis, Cassidy; Peace, KristineThe purpose of this study was to determine what effect psychopathic traits, gender and informed consequences have upon risk-taking behaviours across multiple domains. Although psychopathy has been associated with increased risk for violent and criminal behaviours, few studies have addressed psychopathic traits in relation to different types of risky behaviours outside the criminal realm, as well as whether gender is associated with manifestation of different risk-taking actions. Further, those high in psychopathic traits often disregard the consequences of their risky behaviours relative to those low in such traits who weigh the benefits and risks associated with their actions. Therefore, we examined how risk-consequence information may influence endorsement of risky behaviours across psychopathic trait and gender groups. In this study, participants were assessed on their levels of psychopathic traits, and completed multiple measures evaluating risk-related attitudes and behaviours (i.e., domain-specific, driving, sexual behaviours, and drug use). Participants also were randomly assigned into risk-consequence conditions (positive, negative, none) where information was presented in the form of a fake news release. We anticipate that males and females will endorse different domains of risk-taking and that psychopathic traits will be related to gender-specific patterns of risky behaviours. We also predict that risk-consequence information should only impact low psychopathic trait groups, although this effect may be moderated by gender.
- ItemForensic community programs: recommendations for the management of NCRMD patients in the community(2003) Woodworth, Michael; Peace, Kristine; O'Donnell, Cedar; Porter, SteveRecent trends towards community support and rehabilitation for individuals found Not Criminally Responsible due to a Mental Disorder (NCRMD) has led to the development of forensic community programs (FCP). The authors of the present paper were contacted by professionals involved with an FCP established at a hospital in Nova Scotia, Canada. The professionals involved with this FCP were interested in improving the overall functioning (in terms of client management and treatment, and risk reduction) of the program. The current article will discuss the eight main considerations and recommendations that were provided by the authors after an extensive review of the literature as well as a consideration of the current structure of the Nova Scotia FCP. These recommendations are generalizable to most community treatment programs available for NCRMD individuals.
- ItemGender, emotionality, and victim impact statements(2012) Peace, Kristine; Forrester, DeannaThe present study aims to examine the influence of emotional content and gender pertaining to victim impact statements (VIS) on sentencing outcomes.
- Item'Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration'…or is it? An investigation of the impact of motivation and feedback on deception detection(2007) Peace, Kristine; Porter, Stephen; McCabe, Sean; Woodworth, MichaelAlthough most people perform around the level of chance in making credibility judgments, some researchers have hypothesized that high motivation and the provision of accurate feedback could lead to a higher accuracy rate. This study examined the influence of these factors on judgment accuracy and whether any improvement following feedback was related to social facilitation, a gradual incorporation of successful assessment strategies, or a re-evaluation of 'tunnel vision' decision-making.
- ItemHit me with your best shot: sexuality, threat, and instigation in intimate partner violence responsibility(2019) Rivas Renderos, Gabriela; Peace, KristineIntimate partner violence (IPV) is a considered one of the most pervasive forms of gender-based violence. Given that pre-existing biases and beliefs can lead to judicial bias concerning judgments of severity, culpability, and blame, this study was designed to examine how views concerning sexual orientation, use of threats, and instigator gender influence judgments of IPV.
- ItemI can see it on your face: how levels of psychopathy, anxiety, and emotional intelligence predict detection of negative emotions(2017) Wieczorek, Karolina; Peace, KristinePast research has revealed a complex interplay between psychopathic traits, levels of anxiety, and emotional intelligence (EI). In particular, scholars argue that psychopaths vary in their levels of trait anxiety, suggesting that some may be able to “feel” or experience emotion to some degree. Conversely, psychopathy also has been negatively related to the ability to perceive and recognize emotion (a form of EI) in others, especially for those low in trait anxiety. That said, other studies have found that psychopaths may have an enhanced ability to detect negative emotions, particularly fear. Few studies have examined these variables in relation to the detection of real or feigned emotion, and none in relation to negative emotions. The present research was designed to evaluate the influence of psychopathic traits, levels of anxiety, and emotional intelligence in relation to an emotion veracity task focused on negative emotions. Participants will complete self-report assessments of our personality variables, followed by exposure to facial emotion sets that vary according to veracity (genuine/feigned) and emotion type (fear/sadness/anger/disgust). Accuracy scores and signal detection rates will be analyzed to determine what combination of psychopathic traits, anxiety, and emotional intelligence are linked to fine-tuned emotion detection.
- ItemIn the shadows: perceptions of in-person, phone, and cyberstalking(2022) Gauthier, Mattise; Peace, KristinePrevious research has found that our perceptions concerning stalking characteristics and behaviours are misaligned with actual data on criminal harassment. In order to evaluate the extent to which views of stalking are influenced by our beliefs, the present study assessed perceptions of harassment in relation to the type of stalking (in-person/phone/cyber), gender of the stalker (man/woman), the stalker-victim relationship (stranger/acquaintance/ex-partner), and the types of threat involved (victim harm/self harm). Participants (N = 813) read a vignette detailing a series of related stalking incidents, and then completed a judgment questionnaire to assess perceptions of the crime, victim and perpetrator, and necessity of criminal justice intervention. Results indicated that cyberstalking was minimized, and that participants often failed to recognize behaviours associated with this form of harassment. Stalking perpetrated by men was seen as the most serious, and woman-perpetrated stalking was viewed as a sign of flattery and not violence. Finally, participants most readily identified stalking by strangers and associated this with the greatest levels of threat, dangerousness, and mental illness. Victim blaming also was evidenced in this study and was most prominent when stalkers and victims knew each other, especially as former intimate partners. These results reveal how public views on stalking are often in conflict with statistical data on crime commissions and how these could have legal ramifications on the perceptions of defendants and accusers in court.
- ItemInvestigating differences in truthful and fabricated symptoms of traumatic stress over time(2010) Peace, Kristine; Porter, Stephen; Cook, BriannaFalse allegations of victimization typically are accompanied by malingered emotional symptomology to corroborate claims. This analog study was designed to compare truthful and fabricated symptom profiles on measures of post-traumatic stress (i.e., Revised Impact of Event Scale, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist, Trauma Symptom Inventory) and levels of symptom consistency over time. Participants (undergraduate students) described their mental health symptoms for both traumas at time 1 (N = 291), time 2 (N = 252, 3 month), and time 3 (N = 181, 6 months). Results indicated that fabricated traumas were associated with inflated symptom profiles. Validity scales were not effective at discerning symptom veracity, although reports could be discriminated somewhat by atypical responding and clinical scales. PTSD symptoms in malingerers also were reported more consistently over time. This research offers applicable information for identifying feigned traumatic stress.
- ItemIs truth stranger than fiction? Bizarre details and credibility assessment(2015) Peace, Kristine; Brower, Krista; Rocchio, AlexandraA series of three studies were designed to examine the influence of bizarreness on perceived witness credibility by mock-jurors. Study 1 investigated the relationship between bizarre details (baseline, mild, moderate, extreme), crime perspectives (victim/witness), and fantasy proneness on credibility assessment of eyewitness statements. Study 2 examined bizarreness level according to the number of bizarre details present (5, 10, or 15) and Study 3 observed the relationship between bizarreness level and the type of detail (description, action, event). The results for all three studies indicated that credibility was negatively related to level of bizarreness. In addition, action and event details were less believable relative to perpetrator descriptions, especially when bizarreness increased. Concurrently, ratings of belief in events as reported, credibility, and plausibility decreased as the number of bizarre details increased. These findings suggest that certain events may be 'too strange to be true'.
- ItemLooking down the barrel of a gun: what do we know about the weapon focus effect?(2016) Fawcett, Jonathan; Peace, Kristine; Greve, AndreaEyewitness memory for the perpetrator or circumstances of a crime is generally worse for scenarios involving weapons compared to those involving non-weapon objects—a pattern known for decades as the weapon focus effect. But despite ample support from laboratory experiments and recognition by experts, testimony concerning weapon focus is rarely admissible in court. The present article summarizes a selection of key findings within the weapon focus literature and considers whether the effect warrants consideration by the criminal justice system at this time. We conclude that weapon focus is sufficiently robust and uncontroversial to guide practice so long as consideration is given to the circumstances surrounding the criminal event with a particular emphasis on witness expectation.