Browsing by Author "Pergelova, Albena"
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- ItemA cross-country study of marketing effectiveness in high-credence services(2016) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Cheben, Juraj; Angulo-Altamirano, EladioThis research seeks to examine the influence of traditional advertising, Internet marketing, and relational marketing on choice and willingness to recommend across countries with varying levels of the Inglehart–Baker cultural dimensions. In the general model, including four countries, relational, and Internet marketing have a significant and positive effect on choice. In the country-specific models, relational marketing has significant positive effects in Canada, Slovakia, and Peru; traditional advertising only in Peru; and Internet marketing only in Slovakia. None of those activities has an influence on choice in Hungary. Relational marketing and Internet marketing have indirect effects on willingness to recommend through the mediating influence of choice. The study provides evidence of comparative marketing effectiveness in the context of high-credence service across different countries.
- ItemA market segmentation approach for higher education based on rational and emotional factors(2010) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Rialp, JosepMarket segmentation is an important topic for higher education administrators and researchers. For segmenting the higher education market, we have to understand what factors are important for high school students in selecting a university. Extant literature has probed the importance of rational factors such as teaching staff, campus facilities, and quality of education. Less attention has been devoted to the relevance of emotional factors such as personal values. The aim of this paper is to suggest a segmentation approach based on integrating rational and emotional factors that prospective students value when selecting a university. We gather information from 21 focus groups and develop a survey applied to a sample of high school students. We find six segments characterized by distinct rational and emotional underlying factors that lead to a particular composition for each segment. The factors discussed in this research can be used as a guide for higher education managers to develop segmentation and communication plans.
- ItemAn empowerment model of youth financial behavior(2015) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Pergelova, AlbenaThe current study examines the antecedents of youth financial behavior. By grounding the conceptual framework on empowerment theory, we argue that in addition to financial knowledge other elements such as intrapersonal (e.g., locus of control and motivation) and interactional elements (e.g., parental financial teaching and behavior) also impact youth financial behavior. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling is used on a data set of youth from Western Canada. The results indicate that external locus of control has the highest total effect on youth financial behavior followed by parental influence and motivation. Findings are validated by performing several robustness checks and multigroup analysis. Organizations trying to influence youth financial behavior should broaden the understanding of empowerment to include personal worldview, motivation, as well as social surroundings.
- ItemComparing advertising effectiveness in South-American and North-American contexts: testing Hofstede's and Inglehart's cultural dimensions in the higher education sector(2017) Pergelova, Albena; Angulo-Ruiz, FernandoThis research compares the effectiveness of advertising and relational marketing in two countries characterized by varying levels of both Hofstede's and Inglehart's cultural dimensions – Peru (high-power distance, high collectivism, survival and traditional values) and Canada (low-power distance, high individualism, self-expression and secular-rational values). Survey data from a high credence service sector (higher education) in both countries is used for the analysis. The results indicate that advertising and relational marketing have direct effects on choice in Peru, but do not have significant direct effects on choice in Canada. Advertising does, however, affect positively perceptual outcome measures (perceived marketing effectiveness) in Canada. Additionally, we find that advertising and relational marketing have an indirect impact on choice and perceived marketing effectiveness through the mediation of perceived informativeness and influencers in both countries. These results point to the need to account for mechanisms and mediating variables when building theoretical frameworks in cross-country studies.
- ItemDemocratizing entrepreneurship? Digital technologies and the internationalization of female‐led SMEs(2019) Pergelova, Albena; Manolova, Tatiana; Simeonova‐Ganeva, Ralitsa; Yordanova, DesislavaThis study examines how digital technologies affect the international expansion of female‐led small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs). Digital technologies have the potential to democratize entrepreneurship by providing access to international market knowledge and facilitating interactions with customers and partners. Building on the original Penrosean specification of the resource‐based view and the notion of versatility of resources, we propose that digital technologies impact positively SME internationalization through the mediation of international market intelligence. Furthermore, we posit that female entrepreneurs will leverage the enabling effects of digital technologies more than their male counterparts. The hypotheses are tested on a representative sample of 300 Bulgarian SMEs. Implications for policy and research are advanced.
- ItemEntrepreneurship education and its gendered effects on feasibility, desirability and intentions for technology entrepreneurship among STEM students(2023) Pergelova, Albena; Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Manolova, Tatiana; Yordanova, DesislavaThis study aims to examine how entrepreneurship education influences intentions for starting a technology venture among science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) students with particular attention to gender differences. This study builds on the model of entrepreneurial event and social role theory to assess the impact of entrepreneurship education on feasibility, desirability and intentions for technology entrepreneurship.
- ItemGender and international entry mode(2018) Pergelova, Albena; Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Yordanova, DesislavaThis article examines whether male- and female-led small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) adopt different strategic directions when internationalising. We build on the notion of gendered socialisation and the resource-based view examining gender differences in international entry modes. We also analyse several contingencies in the relationship between gender and internationalisation. Findings indicate that female-led SMEs are more likely to internationalise via export than foreign direct investment (FDI). The results challenge conventional wisdom on the role of resources and capabilities accumulated with manager age in the process of internationalisation; younger female chief executive officers are more likely to internationalise via FDI. The results offer novel insights to the literature on internationalisation of SMEs calling for more attention towards the interplay of social norms and gendered structural arrangements, on the one hand, and entrepreneurial agency, on the other, for a better understanding of the internationalisation of female-led SMEs.
- ItemHow do marketing activities influence organizational reputation in higher education institutions? An impression management perspective across eight countries(2022) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Cheben, Juraj; Angulo-Altamirano, EladioBased on impression management theory, we ask how marketing activities build organizational reputation and we examine the mediating mechanisms of desired impressions, and the moderating impact of national culture. Specifically, and in the context of higher education institutions, we examine the influence of relational marketing and traditional advertising on organizational reputation through the mediation of desired impressions (e.g., quality of learning, career prospects and extracurricular activities) across countries.
- ItemHow does home government influence the internationalization of emerging market firms? The mediating role of strategic intents to internationalize(2019) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Wei, William XiaojunThe purpose of this paper is to focus on the differential impact of government promotional measures and government ownership on two internationalization variables: location and speed of internationalization of emerging market multinationals (EMNEs). Central to the authors’ study is the mediating role of strategic intents to internationalize. In particular, we study how government impacts the resource-seeking, market-seeking and technology-seeking motives to internationalize. The empirical setting for the paper is Chinese companies that have internationalized via an equity based entry mode. The authors employ 672 firm responses collected by the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada and the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade. The empirical results demonstrate that different home government measures have differential impact on internationalization outcomes. Government promotional measures (such as direct incentives and bilateral agreements to support internationalization) have only an indirect effect on international location and speed through the effect they have on the strategic motives to internationalize; while government ownership in the company has a direct impact on international location. The study highlights that home governments are shaping EMNEs strategic intent. Home government can influence EMNEs internationalization choices by providing resource flows through financial resources and state ownership or through asset-accumulation mechanisms via promotional measures .Policy makers in emerging markets need to develop policies focused on the specific motivations that firms have when internationalizing. EMNEs are suggested to take advantage of government policies more intentionally. The theoretical contribution centers on identifying important mediating mechanisms pointing to the interplay between government policies and international location and speed of firms. The authors contribute to the growing stream of research on internationalization of emerging market firms by building a sound theoretical model and examining empirically the role of home government in the internationalization of EMNEs.
- ItemMarketing and corporate social performance: steering the wheel towards marketing's impact on society.(2013) Pergelova, Albena; Angulo-Ruiz, FernandoPurpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual basis and to suggest methodological approaches for a shift in research efforts at the crossroad of marketing and corporate social responsibility (CSR). As such, we build on theoretical developments in marketing and offer a research agenda for bridging theory and empirical research. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper that presents theoretical developments in marketing and a review of empirical literature on marketing and CSR. Based on those, a gap between developments in marketing theory and empirical literature is identified and three future research streams are elaborated. Findings Currently there is a curious divide in the marketing literature: while marketing theory is shifting towards a view of the customers in their different roles in society and co-creation of value, the performance metrics used in empirical research are almost exclusively focused on the company. A review of the literature reveals that the majority of the research on the topic has focused on how CSR and socially responsible behavior will impact corporate financial performance. We contend that we should turn to examining social performance marketing metrics in their own legitimacy, whether or not they might prove further to be connected to financial performance. Limitations The study is framed within the marketing literature and as such has the inherent limitation of incorporating mainly literature from this domain. Implications We need to shift the wheel and focus towards how the firm's marketing and CSR efforts affect society. Measuring the impact of CSR on firm-related financial outcomes does not give us an indication of the social impact of companies' CSR activities. Contribution By identifying a clear divide between recent developments in marketing theory and the empirical literature at the crossroad of marketing and CSR, this paper focuses the attention on the need to develop marketing metrics that reflect the social impact of companies' CSR activities. The authors develop three future research streams that are suggested as a way of bridging the gap between theory and empirical efforts, and propose methodological approaches for each of the three streams. It is hoped that this will help shift research efforts towards measuring the social impact of CSR activities, instead of just the company impact.
- ItemThe entrepreneurial quest for emancipation: trade-offs, practices, and outcomes in an Indigenous context(2022) Pergelova, Albena; Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Dana, Leo-PaulThis paper builds on theoretical developments that view entrepreneurship as emancipation, i.e., entrepreneurial activities as generators of change and pursuit of freedom from perceived constraints. Using a representative data set of 1095 SMEs owned by Indigenous entrepreneurs in Canada, the authors investigate how pursuit of this freedom affects (i) the way entrepreneurs enact several aspects of their ventures and (ii) the performance outcomes achieved. Findings reveal how the initial motivations of entrepreneurs (seeking change for the social collective of which they are a part versus seeking autonomy for themselves) lead to distinct business practices, which in turn impact differentially entrepreneurial outcomes.
- ItemThe impact of government financial support on the performance of new firms: the role of competitive advantage as an intermediate outcome(2014) Pergelova, Albena; Angulo-Ruiz, FernandoThis research examines the influence of government financial support on new firms' performance. Extant empirical research on the topic has found mixed results, which warrants an exploration of the theoretical basis for the impact of support policies on new firms' performance. Grounding the theoretical model in the resource-based view and institutional theories, this study contends that performance outcomes – e.g. revenues or profits – should not be the first outcomes of public policies to be examined. Instead, competitive advantage formation is suggested as a link between support policies and new firms' performance. Using new firms from the USA, we examine the impact of government financial support measures – government loans, guarantees and government equity – on firms' overall competitive advantage and more specific types of competitive advantage based on innovation, licensing-in, marketing and human capital. Controlling for family funding, bank financing, equity of business angels and venture capitalists, industry, size as well as entrepreneur's characteristics, the results reveal that government guarantees and government equity have a direct effect on new firms' competitive advantage and only an indirect impact on performance. Our results suggest to policy-makers to focus on helping new firms build the necessary capabilities to compete successfully in the marketplace.
- ItemThe influence of motivations on international location choice in least developed, emerging and developed countries: evidence from Chinese MNEs(2022) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Wei, William XiaojunThis research aims to assess variations of motivations when studying international location decisions. In particular, this study aims to assess the influence of diverse motivations – seeking technology, seeking brand assets, seeking markets, seeking resources and escaping institutional constraints – as determinants of the international location choice of emerging market multinational enterprises (EM MNEs) entering least developed, emerging, and developed countries.
- ItemThe internationalization of social hybrid firms(2020) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Dana, Leo-PaulThis paper is concerned with the internationalization of firms that combine social and profit objectives at their core, referred to as social hybrid firms. In contrast to most profit-focused firms, such firms tend to place considerable attention on the social impact within their local communities. For this reason, the internationalization behavior of these firms has received limited research attention. In our empirical setting, however, some social hybrid firms go beyond their local communities and internationalize. Using the attention-based view as a theoretical framework, we hypothesize several boundary conditions that affect the internationalization of social hybrid firms and test them with a representative data set of small and medium-sized, privately-owned, indigenous businesses in Canada. Our findings reveal that social hybrid firms are more likely to internationalize when the levels of institutional isomorphism are high and when the organization leverages economic network ties. However, social network ties and government support reduce the likelihood of social hybrid firms to internationalize. The study provides theoretical and practical implications related to the phenomenon of social hybrid firms, their internationalization, and the attention-based view of the firm.
- ItemThe student retention puzzle revisited: the role of institutional image(2013) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Pergelova, AlbenaThis study aims to develop and test a student retention model that includes system and institutional dropout as outcome variables, examining differences in factors that affect them. We also model the image of the institution as influencing institutional commitment and drop/stay intentions. Using structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses, we found that both initial personal and institutional characteristics (such as students' goal commitment and the higher education institutional image), as well as the institutional experience and integration of the student into the academic environment, will have an effect on the level of student performance and institutional commitment, which in turn influence stay/drop decisions. Higher education administrators need to manage not only conventional factors—such as instructional effectiveness, peer interaction, and academic integration—in order to reduce attrition. They also need to manage brand associations with regard to the positioning of their institution in prospects' minds.