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- ItemA review of common shoulder injuries: clavicular fractures and anterior dislocations(2020) Rathje, Ben; Begg, Caelen; Helland, Liv; Kyars, PariThe shoulder complex is an intricate combination of bones, muscles, and ligaments that function synergistically to move the arm. While the shoulder is a very mobile joint, allowing for movement in all planes, it is not an apparatus known for stability. The injuries that can be sustained by the shoulder are often extensive and could give rise to further injuries in other aspects of the body, including the arm, back, and sternum. Two of the most common injuries that can be sustained by the shoulder include clavicular fractures and anterior shoulder dislocations. Clavicular fractures are most commonly sustained by direct compressive force directed towards the sternum and applied to the ipsilateral shoulder, while anterior dislocations commonly occur as a result of direct force projected anteriorly while the arm is externally rotated and abducted. The mechanism of injury for both clavicular fractures and anterior dislocations dictates the injuries' severity which subsequently determines the extent of treatment and rehabilitation that is needed. Both conservative and surgical methods are effective in treating shoulder injuries depending upon an individual's activity level and the extent of the injury. Following treatment, proper rehabilitation of the injury is crucial to regain the shoulder's active pain-free range of motion, strength of surrounding muscles, and neuromuscular control, while ensuring a timely return to daily activities.
- ItemCan mental training help to improve shooting accuracy?(1999) Couture, Roger T.; Singh, Mohan; Lee, Wayne; Chahal, Paul; Wankel, Leonard; Oseen, Margaret; Wheeler, GaryThe study investigated the effects of two mental training strategies separately and combined on subjects’ shooting performance following an endurance march. Further, the study examined the suitability of a ten‐session training programme for the police force. On Trial 1, following a three hour march, 44 subjects shot 25 rounds. Subjects were then randomly assigned to four groups (biofeedback, relaxation, combined biofeedback and relaxation and control). After two weeks of mental training, subjects performed both tasks again on Trial 2. A repeated two‐way ANOVA indicated a significant improvement (p < 0.01) in shooting accuracy by the combined group. Suitability for this mental training programme was strongly supported by the experimental groups (71 per cent to 80 per cent). Subjects were generally better able to relax and focus. They were also more aware of their body and their physiological control. Results are discussed in light of potential benefits for cognitive strategies in precision tasks following endurance activities.
- ItemCultural citizenship or commercial interest? The 1962 Grey Cup Fiasco(2018) Valentine, JohnIn 1962, the Board of Broadcast Governors (BBG), an arm of the Canadian federal government responsible for broadcasting, made the unprecedented move to force the national public broadcaster to televise the Grey Cup, the championship game of Canadian football, ostensibly because it was in the national interest. However, research reveals that this decision was not necessarily made because it was in the national interest, but more so to assist the new struggling private television network, CTV. The important content, allegedly linked to cultural citizenship, was not the national championship, but the television commercials. This paper explores why the BBG intervened and how the dispute was settled.
- ItemCultural nationalism, anti-Americanism, and the federal defense of the Canadian Football League(2019) Valentine, JohnDuring the 1960s nationalism flourished in Canada as did American influence, both cultural and economically, as well as separatist sentiment in Quebec. The Canadian federal government became more interventionist to combat threats to Canadian sovereignty: internal threats from Quebec and external threats from the United States. The federal government used sport as a nation-building tool and eventually acted to protect the Canadian Football League (CFL) as a display of resistance to Americanization and in an attempt to unite French and English. Canadian football had become a symbol of the nation and therefore could be used by the government in a symbolic way to resist cultural imperialism and promote national unity. On two occasions the federal government acted to ensure the CFL preserved its Canadian identity; first, to prevent Canadian-based football teams from joining an American professional football league, and second, to prevent American-based teams from joining the CFL. John Munro was the key Canadian politician who formulated policy to protect Canadian football.
- ItemEffect of needle puncture and electro-acupuncture on mucociliary clearance in anesthetized quails(2006) Wang, Jiulin; Tai, Shusheng; Sun, Feng; Xutian, Stevenson; Wang, Tianshan; King, MalcolmBackground: Acupuncture therapy for obstructive respiratory diseases has been effectively used in clinical practice and the acupuncture points or acupoints of Zhongfu and Tiantu are commonly used acupoints to treat patients with the diseases. Since the impaired mucociliary clearance is among the most important features of airway inflammation in most obstructive respiratory diseases, the effect of needle puncture and electro-acupuncture at the specific acupoints on tracheal mucociliary clearance was investigated in anesthetized quails. Methods: Mucociliary transport velocity on tracheal mucosa was measured through observing the optimal pathway, and fucose and protein contents in tracheal lavages were determined with biochemical methods. In the therapeutic group, needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to the acupoints was applied without or with constant current output in 2 mA and at frequency of 100 Hz for 60 minutes. In the sham group, electro-acupuncture stimulation to Liangmen was applied. Results: Our present experiments demonstrated that the electro-acupuncture stimulation to Zhongfu and Tiantu significantly increased tracheal mucociliary transport velocity and decreased the content of protein in the tracheal lavage, compared with the control group. Moreover, either needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to Zhongfu and Tiantu significantly reverted the human neutrophil elastase-induced decrease in tracheal mucociliary transport velocity and human neutrophil elastase -induced increase in the contents of fucose and protein in the tracheal lavage, compared with the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that either needle puncture or electro-acupuncture stimulation to the effective acupoints significantly improves both airway mucociliary clearance and the airway surface liquid and that the improvements maybe ascribed to both the special function of the points and the substantial stimulation of electricity.
- ItemEffects of mental training on the performance of military endurance and precision tasks in the Canadian Forces(1991) Couture, Roger T.; Singh, Mohan; Lee, Wayne; Chahal, Paul; Wankel, L.; Oseen, Margaret; Wheeler, G.This study investigated the effect of two cognitive training strategies, associative and dissociative thinking, on soldiers' ability to perform a weight-loaded march. Forty Infantry soldiers from the Canadian Army completed three hours of marching. Following the march, subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups: associative (biofeedback), dissociative (meditation), combined associative-dissociative (biofeedback and meditation) and control. After two weeks of mental training, the soldier performed the march again. Analyses showed that all soldiers had improved in their ability to estimate the amount of time remaining in the march and in their ability to reduce heart rate levels while marching. Significant changes however were not found in perceived fatigue levels and in rates of perceived exertion during the march. Results are discussed in light of these findings.
- ItemEncouraging global citizenship amongst kinesiology students in higher education: a Canadian perspective(2021) Mandigo, James; Corlett, John; Sheppard, JoannaWhile 83% of Canadian universities identify global citizenship education as a top five priority and 97% provide opportunities for their students to participate in study abroad, only 3% of students take advantage in any given year. Faculty-led study abroad courses that are for-credit, short in duration, focused in a student’s disciplinary area of study, peer based, well supervised, and based on pre-established partnerships and relationships with local stakeholders can be effective in providing global citizenship education. This paper explores the facilitation of faculty-led international study abroad for those studying in kinesiology and related fields. We make eight recommendations based on having led hundreds of students in for-credit kinesiology courses in international settings over the past 20 years. These recommendations are: 1) engaging students in faculty research; 2) group dynamics; 3) preparation; 4) local partnerships; 5) decision-making and communication; 6) teachable moments; 7) preparing to return home; and 8) assessment as learning. These recommendations, while not exhaustive, are meant to provide colleagues with “insider information” based upon our collective experience.
- ItemFootball and "tolerance": black football players in 20th century Canada(2012) Valentine, John; Darnell, S.This chapter draws on the history of Black football players in 20th-century Canada in order to explore and challenge the notion of Canadian racial tolerance in relation to Blackness.
- ItemFunctional vagal input to chemically identified neurons in pancreatic ganglia as revealed by Fos expression(1999) Wang, Jiulin; Zheng, Huiyuan; Berthoud, Hans-RudolfThe importance of neural elements in the control of both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic secretory functions and their coordination with gastrointestinal, hepatic, and general homeostatic functions is increasingly recognized. To better characterize the vagal efferent input to the pancreas, the capacity of electrical vagal stimulation to induce expression of c-Fos in neurochemically identified neurons of intrapancreatic ganglia was investigated. At optimal stimulation parameters, unilateral stimulation of either the left or right cervical vagus induced Fos expression in ∼30% of neurons in the head and 10–20% of neurons in the body and tail of the pancreas. There was no Fos expression if no stimulation or stimulation with a distally cut vagus was applied. Large proportions of neurons contained nitric oxide synthase as assessed with NADPH diaphorase histochemistry (88%) and choline acetyltransferase. The proportion of nitrergic and nonnitrergic neurons receiving vagal input was not different. It is concluded that a significant proportion of pancreatic neurons receives excitatory synaptic input from vagal preganglionic axons and that many of these vagal postganglionic neurons can produce nitric oxide and acetylcholine.
- ItemImpact of peak oxygen uptake and muscular fitness on the performance of activities of daily living in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(2012) Kato, David; Rodgers, Wendy M.; Stickland, Michael K.; Haennel, Robert G.PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressively debilitating disease, which, over time, may compromise patient ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between selected parameters of physical fitness and performance of ADL in COPD patients. METHODS: A convenience sample of 23 COPD patients (11 men and 12 women, age 6869 years) was studied at the conclusion of an exercise rehabilitation program. Patients were assessed using the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance 10 Test (PFP-10) battery, chest press, leg press, and a symptom limited graded exercise test. RESULTS: The PFP-10 global score was 54 +/- 12, and 11 patients fell below a global score of 57, which has been established as the threshold for independence. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was 20 +/- 4 mL[middle dot]kg21[middle dot]min21, the forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced expiratory volume ratio was 0.58 +/- 0.12, grip strength was 61 +/- 16 kg (both hands), and chest press and leg press were 4 +/- 3 and 12 +/- 7 kg/kg body weight, respectively. The associations between the PFP-10 VO2peak and leg press were modest (r = 0.501, P = .014; and r = 0.547, P = .008) as was grip strength (r = 0.418, P = .047). There was no association between the PFP-10 and forced expiratory volume, forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, or chest press (r = -20.040, P = .856; r = 20.212, P = .330; and r = 0.120, P = .595), respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this investigation suggest that lower body strength is important in optimizing ADL performance in COPD patients.
- ItemNew racism and old stereotypes in the National Hockey League: the stacking of aboriginal players into the role of enforcer(2012) Valentine, JohnTracing the roles played by Aboriginal hockey players in the National Hockey League (NHL) from the mid-1970s to 2010, this chapter takes an historical, longitudinal view to explain the abundance of Aboriginals, that is, Indians, Inuit, and Métis men, in the role of enforcer, a one-dimensional player who does little more than fight. "Stacking" is a term that draws attention to certain social factors that account for the position — or, for the purposes of this chapter, the role — a player is assigned or expected to fulfill as a member of a team. To situate the phenomenon of stacking Aboriginal hockey players as enforcers, the place of Aboriginal peoples within Canada is examined, particularly an historically informed analysis of the concept of Othering within democratic racism. To build the case of the stacking of Aboriginal hockey players, quantitative data is analyzed, with penalty minutes, major penalties, and fights examined for each National Hockey League season in which Aboriginal representation made up at least 1 percent of the league's players. The results indicate that Aboriginal NHL players have disproportionately fulfilled the role of enforcer; these results are considered in relation to the history of the culture of racism in Canada.
- ItemPhysical and health education curriculum and pedagogy(2021) Corlett, John; Linaker, L.; Mandigo, JamesPhysical and Health Education nurtures in young people an integrated sense of motivation, confidence, and understanding of how to navigate the world healthfully through experiential learning. To do that, we teach in modern ways for modern children in modern schools with modern expectations for modern educational outcomes. Early humans living considerably more hostile and unpredictable hunter-gatherer existences had at least as compelling a need for their children to learn the values and skills required for them to survive and to thrive. The hunter-gatherer approach to fostering the knowledge required for their children to master a complex physical and social environment holds possible reminders about pedagogical and curricular strategies relevant to modern PHE. In this paper, we explore a back-to-the-future approach to creating experiential learning environments in PHE based on the wisdom of hunter-gatherer cultures and their approach to fostering learning about healthy lives among their young people.
- ItemPhysical fitness and performance standards for the Canadian army(1990) Lee, S. W.; Chahal, Paul; Singh, Mohan; Wheeler, G.Examines physical fitness standards and testing, with particular emphasis on the fitness requirements of the Canadian Army. The importance of physical fitness to the Canadian Army is reviewed and physical fitness tests administered in the Canadian military are analyzed. An overview of Canadian and international fitness testing includes the following tests: the Canadian Army uses CF EXPRES Programme derived from the Canadian Standardized Test of Fitness, the Battle Efficiency Test (BET), a 19-item Indoor Standardized Obstacle Course (ISOC); United States Army uses the Army Physical Readiness Test (APRT); the Australian Army utilizes the Physical Training Test (PTT), the British Army has three types of tests including the Army Personal Fitness Assessment; the Swedish Army, the Physical Working Capacity test and the Soviet Army, the GTO programme which means Ready for Labour and Defence.
- ItemPhysical fitness and work performance standards: a proposed approach(1992) Chahal, Paul; Lee, S. W.; Oseen, Margaret; Singh, Mohan; Wheeler, G.Traditionally physical performance standards have been developed by a process of normative referencing and are generally established on the bases of age and gender. Many of the jobs assigned to workers can be very physically demanding and result in injury. In addition, men and women may lack physical capacity to fulfil the requirements of such jobs. To satisfy Canadian Human Rights legislation requirements of equal opportunity, regardless of age and gender, the establishment of task-related physical performance standards is an appropriate and desirable approach. These standards must be based on the physical requirements of the jobs and should be within the physiological capacities of the workers. In this paper, the authors have proposed a model to develop task-related performance standards. The purposes, physical capacities, and steps for development of such standards are explained. Applicability of related tests and models also have been outlined. Such an approach should result in a drop of work-related injuries, reduce work for the Workers Compensation Boards and provide greater job satisfaction for the employees. The paper presents a framework for development of specific physical work performance standards for different industries.
- ItemRunning-up the score: the athletes’ experience(2022) Valentine, JohnProblem Statement: When sporting participants enter the playing field, all are expected to play fairly and to the utmost of their ability, skills, and talent. However, an interesting situation arises when one team is far superior to the opponent. In that case, should athletes still be encouraged to play their best, even when this might result in a one-sided outcome? Running up the score occurs when a team or athlete continues to extend a lead when the outcome of the game is already certain. Attempting to avoid running up the score, might mean that participants are not giving their best effort; or are not trying to score. The majority of researchers have been generally opposed to running up the score. However, while philosophical explorations of running up the score have shed light on the practice, they have over-looked the experiences of the participants. Approach and methods: This research explores i) the effect consistently experiencing one-sided losses has on players dropping-out of sport, ii) feelings of humiliation when opposing teams run-up the score, and iii) the experience of the parents of the players in overmatched contests. Data was collected from players, coaches, and parents of ringette players using informal interviews and an online survey. Ringette is an ice hockey-like game played by girls. This research includes a review of the literature examining running up the score, an exploration of when it might be permissible, an examination of the Blues’ season including a survey of the athletes’ attitudes and experiences during the season, and finally solutions to help avoid running up the score. Results: Results of the study suggest that experiencing one-sided losses does not dramatically affect the players. Players did not drop-out of the sport, they rarely felt humiliated, and they did not seem to be as affected by the losses as much as their parents did. Discussion: Superior teams should utilize nonpatronizing methods to handicap the team and employ them in a way that does not humiliate the opponent. These teams could use strategic easing by playing less competent players, playing players in different positions, playing to an opponent’s strengths, trying to end the game sooner by running out the clock, or by practicing new strategies and tactics
- ItemThe Rocket, the riot, and the revolution: hockey in French Canada(2021) Valentine, John; Toal, BrandonHockey has historically occupied an important place in the lives of many Canadians, and this interest is particularly strong in French Canada. The Montreal Canadiens team aligned itself closely with the francophone community by utilizing primarily French-Canadian players and featuring a team name that reflected French-Canadian culture. The team, and the sport, were used to challenge the history of humiliation French Canadians had experienced at the hands of the English. During the Second World War, the team signed a new French-Canadian star. In his first full season, Maurice Richard led the Canadiens to the Stanley Cup championship. In his next season, he broke the goalscoring record. Richard quickly became an icon and political symbol representing French-Canadian nationalism. League commissioner Clarence Campbell, an Oxford-educated, English Canadian, often disciplined the fiery Quebecer. To many French Quebecers, these interactions with Campbell represented another example of English Canada’s dominance over French Canada. Despite their majority status, francophones in Quebec had higher levels of poverty and unemployment, and fewer management positions. In 1955, after an altercation with a referee, Richard was suspended by Commissioner Campbell. Riots erupted in the streets of Montreal, and Quebec society was changed forever. The focus of this research is on hockey in Quebec from its earliest days until the 1960s when Rocket Richard had retired and the number of Quebec-born players on the Montreal Canadiens started to decline (Whitehouse 2010). The importance of hockey in Quebec will be viewed through the lens of English colonization, but we will also focus on Quebec in the 1960s and the societal shifts that resulted in the Quiet Revolution and the separatist movement. While the relationship Quebec had with both hockey and the Montreal Canadiens changed after the 1960s, the passion Quebecers display for the game continued. However, hockey was no longer necessary to provide empowerment to a disempowered people.
- ItemThe state and Canadian cultural nationalism: protecting Canadian football(2021) Valentine, JohnIn 1974, Canada’s Liberal minority government introduced a bill designed to protect the Canadian Football League (CFL) from competition. It threatened jail for anyone who operated a football team in Canada having any connection with an American team or league. A particular conjuncture of factors prompted the government to act according to the rationale that protecting the CFL was critical to the national interest. Canadian football had become an identity marker that nationalists used to define the country and differentiate it from other nations. In the 1960s, post-war Canadian nationalism heightened concerns about Americanization as well as Quebec separatism. It also brought increasing state intervention, including cultural policies that grew in scope as they became more populist, from a government in a minority position facing a national unity crisis. In this research, the government’s unprecedented intervention is explained, by contextualizing it historically within the cultural, economic, and political conditions of the time. When the Canadian Football League, a national sporting league that represented the nation, began to struggle, the stage was set for the most significant government intervention in the area of Canadian professional sport to date.
- ItemVirtual health assessment laboratory course delivery and nursing student clinical judgment: a mixed-methods exploratory study(2022) Vihos, Jill; Chute, Andrea; Carlson, Susan; Buro, Karen; Velupillai, Nirudika; Currie, TamiThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the virtual delivery of a health assessment laboratory course and nursing students' clinical judgment.