Browsing by Author "Gackenbach, Jayne"
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ItemAndrogynous and undifferentiated differences in attributions of female success(1981) Gackenbach, Jayne; Taylor, MelanieStudies using unipolar models of sex role identity in conjunction with an attributional approach to female achievement prediction have found that androgynous women tend to consider ability to be a more feasible explanation for success than do either feminine or undifferentiated women. Androgynous, masculine, feminine and undifferentiated males and females (N=73) attributed reasons for female success to three types of cues: male-dominated, female-dominated, and exclusively female achievement areas. For external attributions, there were no differences among males, but feminine females were more likely than androgynous or masculine females to externally attribute female success. For internal attributions, feminine females were less likely than feminine males to use internal attributions across cues, while undifferentiated females were more likely than undifferentiated males to internally attribute across cues. Androgynous and masculine men and women reacted exactly opposite to each success activity. Results suggest that sex, sex role identity and situational variations occur in the prediction of female achievement behaviors. ItemAt home research project: lucid dreaming exercises and questionnaire(1987) LaBerge, Stephen; Gackenbach, JayneA number of techniques facilitate lucid dreams. One of the simplest is asking yourself many times during the day whether or not you are dreaming. Each time you ask the question, you should look for evidence proving you are not dreaming. The most reliable test is reading: read something, look away for a moment, and then read it again. If it reads the same twice, it is very unlikely that you are dreaming. After you have proven to yourself that you are not presently dreaming, visualize yourself in a lucid dream doing whatever it is you'd like. Also tell yourself that you want to recognize a real dream the next time it occurs. The way people usually recognize a dream is through unusual or bizarre occurrences. For instance, if you find yourself flying without visible means of support, you should realize that this only happens in dreams, and that therefore, you must now be dreaming. ItemBalance and lucid dreaming ability: a suggested relationship(1982) Gackenbach, JayneTwo lines of evidence support a relationship between balance and lucidity. Balance emerged from the factor structure of the content of lucid dreams but not from the content of ordinary dreams and REM burst have been found to reliably precede lucidity, such bursts resulting from internal stimulation of the vestibular nuclei. Since it is unclear whether the proposed relationship between balance and dream lucidity exists on a gross motor or on a vestibular level both were recently measured by myself. ItemBook review: Information technology: no longer the sole province of computers(2008) Gackenbach, JayneWhen I was sent this book to review, my eyes lit up at the inclusion of phones in the title. I had recently been embarrassed while lecturing on cell phones by students' casual observations about their own use. I had relied on recent reviews of the literature, which stated that text messaging was not as widely used in North America as in Europe and Japan. Much to my chagrin, my students pointed out that I was wrong. As is often the case with communication studies research, the evidence lags behind the realities of use of new technologies. A year later, I understand that the cell phone is the new information technology device for immediate use and especially for the dissemination of information. ItemBoundaries of self and reality online : implications of digitally constructed realities(2017) Gackenbach, Jayne; Bown, JohnathanAs technology continues to rapidly advance, individuals and society are profoundly changed. So too are the tools used to measure this universe and, therefore, our understanding of reality improves. Boundaries of Self and Reality Online examines the idea that technological advances associated with the Internet are moving us in multiple domains toward various "edges." These edges range from self, to society, to relationships, and even to the very nature of reality. Boundaries are dissolving and we are redefining the elements of identity. The book begins with explorations of the digitally constructed self and the relationship between the individual and technological reality. Then, the focus shifts to society at large and includes a contribution from Chinese researchers about the isolated Chinese Internet. The later chapters of the book explore digital reality at large, including discussions on virtual reality, Web consciousness, and digital physics. ItemBreaking the frame of digital, dream, and waking realities(2016) Gackenbach, Jayne; Hakopdjanian, S.This book investigates the cognitive significance of an altered mediated reality that appears to have all the dimensions of a dreamscape, presenting the idea that if the digital media-sphere proves to be structurally and functionally analogous to a dreamscape, the Collective Unconscious and the Cognitive Unconscious are susceptible to research according to the parameters of hard science ItemClinical and transpersonal concerns with lucid dreaming voiced(1987) Gackenbach, JayneBecause the phenomenon of dream lucidity has become a field of inquiry for scientists, clinicians, philosophers, and dreamers, I would like to highlight a few concerns which have been mounting in my mind with regard to widespread access to lucid dreaming. We so often experience the lucid dream as pleasant and so seldom hear about "bad" experiences. Therefore, it is easy for those interested in dream lucidity to gloss over potential problems. During my sabbatical year from the University of Northern Iowa, I have had the opportunity to talk to many people both in the United States and abroad about lucidity. Although there is much excitement about its potential, those who voice concern about its abuse are also being heard. This excitement is normal and often accompanies the "discovery" (in this case rediscovery) of any new state of consciousness. However, it is incumbent on the leaders of this emerging field to also voice concerns. My concerns with this field include clinical or personal experiential applications of working with parts of the self in the dream, as well as issues regarding the transpersonal nature of the experience. ItemClinical implications of lucid dreaming(1989) Gackenbach, JayneToday we are dealing with clinical and ethical implications of lucid dreaming, along with any possible contra-indications for lucidity. Our panelists are Alan Moffitt, Jayne Gackenbach, Eric Craig, Stephen LaBerge and Ken Kelzer. I will function as chair. We will keep everybody to an initial five-minute basic statement, and then we can have discussions among ourselves and also input from the floor. By way of introduction, it seems that one can take lucidity in somewhat different directions. Certainly it can be taken as an experimental tool for the systematic observation of dreaming while it goes on, and has been so developed by Stephen LaBerge. We have seen that lucid dreaming can be a process pursued in its own right, one that may overlap with various meditative traditions. It is especially in the latter context that the question arises, whether there are clinical, dynamic, ethical complications or dilemmas that can develop in the context of highly intensified lucid dreaming? Can lucid dreaming to some extent go wrong for certain individuals? ItemThe coevolution of technology and consciousness(2007) Gackenbach, Jayne; Karpen, J.Psychology and the Internet provides the first resource for examining how the Internet affects our definition of who we are and our communication and work patterns. It also examines how normal behavior differs from the pathological with respect to Internet use. The book contains three sections: the first section covers the self in relation to the Internet; the second section explores how the Internet is used to meet new friends and love interests, as well as to conduct business; and the final section examines the philosophical ramifications of Internet use and our definitions of reality and consciousness. ItemCognitive structure associated with the lucid features of gamers dreams(2013) Gackenbach, Jayne; Kuruvilla, BeenaIn a follow-up from Gackenbach and Kuruvilla (2008b), data analysis was undertaken examining the metacognitive qualities of video game players dreams associated with lucidity. Kahan and LaBerge’s (1994) MACE questionnaire responses were examined in a principle component factor analysis. Several factors loaded dream type and gaming variables along with items from the MACE. It was concluded that gaming may be associated with dream lucidity due to the enhanced problem solving quality of gamer’s dreams. ItemCommentary: “Experts” versus trained dream coders: does it make a difference?(2013) Gackenbach, Jayne; Witiw, Taylor; Ferguson, Mary-Lynn; Darlington, Mycah; Flockhart, Carson; Swanson, Dan; Ahlswede, SteveThis is a consideration of possible issues in using expert versus trained dream coders. Our thesis is that due to their lifetime training, expert coders would be more aware of subtle aspects of their area of their expertise in dreams. Two domains are discussed video games and religious/spiritual experience in dreams. ItemConscious mind, sleeping brain : perspectives on lucid dreaming(1988) Gackenbach, Jayne; LaBerge, StephenA conscious mind in a sleeping brain: the title of this book provides a vivid image of the phenomenon of lucid dreaming, in which dreamers are consciously aware that they are dreaming while they seem to be soundly asleep. Lucid dreamers could be said to be awake to their inner worlds while they are asleep to the external world. Of the many questions that this singular phenomenon may raise, two are foremost: What is consciousness? And what is sleep? Although we cannot pro vide complete answers to either question here, we can at least explain the sense in which we are using the two terms. We say lucid dreamers are conscious because their subjective reports and behavior indicate that they are explicitly aware of the fact that they are asleep and dreaming; in other words, they are reflectively conscious of themselves. We say lucid dreamers are asleep primarily because they are not in sensory contact with the external world, and also because research shows physiological signs of what is conventionally considered REM sleep. The evidence presented in this book-preliminary as it is-still ought to make it clear that lucid dreaming is an experiential and physiological reality. Whether we should consider it a paradoxical form of sleep or a paradoxical form of waking or something else entirely, it seems too early to tell. Item"Consciousness" during sleep in a TM practitioner: heart rate, respiration, and eye movement(1987) Gackenbach, Jayne; Moorecroft, William; Alexander, Charles; LaBerge, StephenReports of consciousness during dreaming or lucid dreaming have been verified by having the dreamer signal from the dream that he/she is dreaming with a prearranged set of distinctive lateral eye movements (LaBerge, 1985). This basic methodology has subsequently been replicated in other sleep laboratories. Relatedly, a continuation of consciousness from the waking state into the sleep state is claimed to be a key aspect of the experience of "Transcendental Consciousness", which is developed by the practice of Transcendental Meditation (TM; Banquet & Sailhan, 1974). ItemThe continuity versus discontinuity hypotheses: a consideration of issues for coding video game incorporation(2011) Gackenbach, Jayne; Sample, Tyler; Mandel, GabrielIn response to the discussion between Hobson and Schredl, the history of our program of research for coding dreams of video game players both after playing a game and without such consideration, was reviewed. While many of our studies are about response style in dreams resulting from game play, we also have considered incorporation issues. Some of our previous results seemed to favour the continuity hypothesis, while others favoured the discontinuity perspective. Two approaches to coding gamers’ dreams were considered and critiqued. Some of these problems were then taken up in a compilation of data from three previous research studies where games were played the day before a dream and dream information was gathered. The 182 dreams were categorized into three groups, no game incorporation, partial game incorporation, and full game incorporation (i.e., the dream is the game). Individual difference and game content variables were unrelated to incorporation into subsequent dreams. However, this classification of dreams did result in various content differences. ItemControl your dreams : how lucid dreaming can help you uncover your hidden desires, confront your hidden fears, and explore the frontiers of human consciousness(1989) Gackenbach, Jayne; Bosveld, JaneOutlines a dream technique that enables sleepers to be both actors and director of their dreams by remaining in a state of semi-consciousness. ItemCrow Woman a dream messenger(2003) Gackenbach, JayneI have just completed a book (Gackenbach, in press) about a Canadian Native woman who died four years ago at age 49. The undercurrent of the story of this remarkable woman is how her death was in part a product (socially and culturally) of what's happened to the First Peoples of Canada. Crow Woman was caught between two worlds - the Cree culture in which she was raised and the Western culture which surrounded and dominated her life. Her quandary was finding a balance between these worlds. The paradox of her finally attaining psychological health and in the last weeks of her life profound spiritual transcendence, at the time of her physical bodies disintegration is a story which is in some ways characteristic of North American Natives today. ItemCulture, gender, and media use predictors of dreams among Canadian students(2017) Gahr, Sarah; Gackenbach, JayneThe predictability of culture, gender, and media use for dream type information in Canadian students was the focus of this inquiry. Independent variables were gender (sex of subject and relative masculinity and femininity) culture; (ethnic identity and self-construal of independence versus interdependence) and media use (various gaming, social media, and cell phone questions). These were regressed onto several dream content related dependent variables. These were gathered using the Dream Intensity Scale and research participant and judges evaluations of a recent dream. Gender variables were better able to predict content of self-report dream measures while gender variables showed no difference from media use or culture in predicting judge’s evaluations of dream content. ItemA deeper inquiry into the association between lucid dreams and video game play(2014) Gackenbach, Jayne; Hunt, Harry T.After summarizing the previous research on the association between video game play, meditative absorption, and dream lucidity, three types of considerations of lucidity and gaming were explored in this chapter: the association of lucidity in gamers with metacognition, dream bizarreness, and nonlucid dream content. In terms of specific forms of metacognition in dreams, it appears that gaming adds a dimension to the lucid dreams of gamers such that their full potential for focused problem solving is expressed, very much like with the strategies of video gaming. Some research indicated gamers’ dream included an enhanced bizarreness, but lucidity was not found to mitigate that relationship. Finally, comparing the lucid and nonlucid dreams of gamers, it was concluded that lucidity in gamers’ dreams emphasized the already generally positive dream experience of being lucid in sleep, including enhanced aggression that facilitated the sense of empowerment (also typical of video game playing). Not only is there some indication of more lucidity in gamers’ dreams, but that lucidity seems to be further enhanced by the gaming experience. ItemDifferences between types of lucid dreams(1982) Gackenbach, JayneUndergraduate psychology students described lucid dreams and their situational determinants over a 16—week period. In terms of techniques used to determine lucidity the “dreamlike quality (48.2%) was reported most frequently followed by incongruent element (19.2%,), and nightmare initiated (15%) with other techniques constituting the remainder. When these three types of lucid dreams were compared in terms of situational constraints both the day before and the day after the dream and in terms of the content of these dreams an nteresting pattern of results emerged for the dreamlike initiated lucids vs. the nightmare initiated lucids. The day before nightmare initiated lucids subjects reported more tests and depressed feelings and fewer nonhostile feelings, feelings of attention and secure feelings than on days before lucid dreams which were initiated by the dreamlike quality of the dream. ItemA discussion between Charles Tart and Lucidity Letter editor, Jayne Gackenbach, examining similarities between dream lucidity, witnessing and self-remembering(1988) Tart, Charles; Gackenbach, JayneGackenbach: In a recent review of your book Waking Up, John Wren-Lewis said it was very relevant to those interested in lucid dreaming. Tart: I was very honored that he would say that it is must reading for people who are into lucid dreams since lucid dreaming is mentioned only once in the book. You see, lucid waking is the topic of greatest interest to me nowadays. Some spiritual traditions use an analogy that we live in a dream. In many dreams, you get pushed around by events. You’re not very smart. You don’t re-member important, relevant knowledge. You’re inconsistent. You don’t call on all your resources. You get in these terrible situations, but then you wake up! Not only does the dream problem disappear, but you’re so much smarter by comparison. Smarter from the point of view of the waking state, right?