Browsing by Author "Mugo, Samuel"
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- ItemA flow-through enzymatic microreactor for the rapid conversion of triacylglycerols into fatty acid ethyl ester and fatty acid methyl ester derivatives for GC analysis(2015) Anuar, Sabiqah Tuan; Mugo, Samuel; Curtis, JonathanA flow-through enzymatic microreactor for the rapid conversion of triacylglycerols (TAG) into fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) or fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) derivatives was developed. The microreactor was a porous silica monolith fabricated within a 320 μm ID fused silica capillary with lipase from Candida antarctica immobilized onto the large surface area of the monolith. The microreactor was used for the room temperature ethanolysis of TAG from edible oils including canola, sesame, soybean and refined-bleached-deodorized palm oil. GC/MS-NCI and GC/FID were used to prove the identification of the FAEE and FAME products. The microreactor completely transformed the starting oils into FAEEs or FAMEs, without the use of any reagents other than alcohol, in quantities suitable for GC analysis. The prototype microreactors were reusable >5 times with ethanol and 2 times with methanol. The FAEE products obtained using the microreactor were similar to those produced using commercial Novozyme 435 enzyme beads as well as by catalysis with ethanolic H2SO4.
- ItemA pathogen imprinted hybrid polymer capacitive sensor for selective Escherichia coli detection(2020) Mugo, Samuel; Lu, Weihao; Dhanjai, DhanjaiA versatile pathogen imprinted polymer electrochemical sensor has been developed for Escherichia coli detection. The sensor is based on layer by layer assembly of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT), nanocellulose (CNC) films, integrated with polyaniline (PANI) doped phenylboronic acid (PBA). The sensing layer is a poly(methacrylic acid) based pathogen microcontact imprinted polymer (PIP). The PIP@PBA/PANI@CNT/CNC sensor exhibits a high affinity towards E. coli in real biological matrices, while effective in discriminating E. coli amidst other bacteria. Using capacitance and impedance as transduction methods, the PIP sensor recorded a low limit of E. coli detection of 8.7 ± 0.5 cfu/ml, with a rapid response of ≤5 min.
- ItemAdjustable methacrylate porous monolith polymer layer open tubular silica capillary microextraction for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(2016) Mugo, Samuel; Huybregts, Lauren; Mazurok, JamesA novel adjustable porous polymer monolith layer open tubular silica capillary microextraction (PLOT-ME) device was fabricated by thermal polymerization of a poly(glycidylmethacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (GMA-co-EDMA) polymer film (∼20 µm) within a 250 µm internal diameter silica capillary initiated with 4,4′-azobis(4-cyanopentanoyl chloride). The polymer film thickness and morphology were controlled by the polymerization time and temperature. The length of the microextraction platform immersed in the sample was adjusted by the sample concentration and sample matrix. Furthermore, since the microextraction platform performance typically degraded with use, the PLOT-ME device affords a new microextraction zone that may be exposed by cleaving off the end. This ability significantly reduces the cost of microextraction for academic and research environments. The performance of the PLOT-ME device was tested for microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): naphthalene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, anthracene, 9-methylanthracene, and phenanthrene in aqueous media. Linear calibration curves for the PAHs were obtained with correlation coefficients near unity and relative standard deviations from 2 to 20% for PAH standards from 100 to 0.1 µg/L. The limits of detection for the PAHs were between 0.02 and 0.06 µg/L, while the recoveries were from 97 to 104% in lake water. The precision between different PLOT-ME devices was 11%.
- ItemAdsorption of selected heavy metals on modified nano cellulose(2016) Madivoli, Edwin S.; Kareru, Patrick G.; Gachanja, Anthony N.; Mugo, Samuel; Murigi, Martin K.; Kairigo, P. K.; Kipyegon, Cheruiyot; Mutembei, Jackson K.; Njonge, Francis K.Cellulose is an inexpensive, renewable, bio-based and an abundant raw material suitable for the development of filter membranes for water purification. This is because it has numerous functional groups that afford ease of modification to create active surfaces upon chemical modification. In this study, cellulose was isolated from two abundant biomasses, namely, Eichhornia crassipes and Cyperus papyrus using the soda process followed by bleaching with peracetic acid. The percent yield of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) obtained from E. crassipes and C. papyrus was found to be 31.64 ± 1.46% and 29.55 ± 0.64% respectively. The degree of crystallinity and crystal sizes were calculated to be 71.42% and 0.059 nm for E. crassipes and 46.15% and 0.068 nm for C. papyrus respectively. The FT-IR absorption of the carbonyl functional group of an ester indicated that effective esterification of cellulose using citric acid was obtained when cellulose nanofibrils to citric acid ratio was 1:1. From batch adsorption studies, the capacity for citric acid modified cellulose to remove heavy metals was determined to be 8.36 mg/g Zn2+, 18.06 mg/g Cu2+, 42.69 mg/g Cd2+ and 21.64 mg/g Pb2+. In comparison to the % adsorption using unmodified cellulose of less than 5%, the heavy metals adsorption using modified nanocellulose materials were 86.47% Pb2+, 85.20% Cd2+, 77.40% Cu2+, and 70.04% Zn2+. From these results, it was concluded that modified cellulose could be used as a low cost adsorbent for removal of heavy metals and that development of household water filtration units using modified cellulose could be exploited.
- ItemAn integrated carbon entrapped molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) electrode for voltammetric detection of resveratrol in wine(2015) Mugo, Samuel; Edmunds, Benjamin; Berg, Darren; Gill, NavpreetA carbon entrapped molecularly imprinted polymer (CEMIP) electrode has been demonstrated as a sensitive and selective voltammetric sensor for the in situ detection of resveratrol in red wine. Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), the CEMIP was compared to the carbon entrapped non-imprinted polymer (CENIP), with the resveratrol imprinted format found to be 12 times more sensitive for the detection of resveratrol. The CEMIP and CENIP had a detection limit of 20 and ∼100 μg L−1, respectively, with both electrodes giving good linear standard addition calibrations with R2 ≥ 0.99 for concentrations between 0.1 and 5 mg L−1, which is the usual occurrence range of resveratrol in wine. Compared to the conventional carbon MIP composite (CMIPC), the CEMIP platform was 2.7 orders of magnitude more sensitive, which is attributed to the better electron transfer and unhindered access of the analyte to the responsive sites within the imprinted polymer. The CMIPC was only ∼2.5 times more sensitive than the CNIPC. The %RSD for CEMIP and CMIPC for ∼5.0 mg L−1 of resveratrol in spiked wine was determined to be 3.2% and 5.1%, respectively.
- ItemAnalysis of organic and heavy metal pollutants in marine planktonic organisms from Bamfield, British Columbia by ICP-OES and GC-(2020) Schaub, Addison; Shaw, Ross; Mugo, SamuelPlankton form the base of the marine ecosystem (Levinton, J.S., 2017). It is for this reason it is important to understand the interactions between these critical organisms and the pollutants that they encounter. Heavy metals occur naturally in trace amounts and are continuously being released into the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere of the Earth (Atici et al., 2010; Burada et al., 2014; Callow, P., 1993). The increase in sea water temperatures is increasing the solubility of heavy metals in the water (Levinton, J.S., 2017). Organic pollutants such as pesticides are hydrophobic and lipophilic (Chiuchiolo et al., 2004). Previous results obtained by Kathryn Farmer in 2015 found that an increase in some heavy metals and not others in the four year difference in the Bamfield samples. Analysis of organic pollutants by GC-MS was unable to determine if peaks were the result of pesticides or not and was not able to identify any specific pesticides through the NIST library (Farmer, 2015). This analysis found the majority of the plankton samples showed significant difference between one another for all detected heavy metals. Analysis of organic pollutants was suspended sue to Covid-19 response.
- ItemAntibiotic residues in milk from Juja and Githurai markets in Kenya by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(2021) Ouma, Josephine; Gachanja, Anthony N.; Mugo, Samuel; Gikunju, JosephThe use of antibiotics in livestock production can potentially generate drug residues in animal products, leading to adverse health effects for consumers. This study was carried out to assess the presence and quantify the levels of antibiotic residues in milk sold in Juja and Githurai markets in Kenya. A total of 65 milk samples, comprising raw milk purchased from shops (32 samples), milk purchased from automated vending machines (23 samples) and packet milk (10 samples) were analyzed for the presence of amoxicillin, cloxacillin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim residues. A single aqueous extraction was performed and the extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The prevalence of antibiotic residues in raw milk samples purchased from shops and milk dispensed from automated vending machines was 46.9% and 26.1%, respectively. No antibiotic residues were detected in packet milk samples. The prevalence of antibiotic residues was higher in milk from Githurai market compared to Juja market (52% vs. 25%, P value = 0.0137). Overall, 10.8% of samples tested positive for at least one antibiotic residue above the maximum residue limits established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the European Union, while 20% of samples had detectable antibiotic residues at concentrations below the maximum residue limits. The mean concentrations were 6.7 µg/L, 53.3 µg/L, 30.6 µg/L, 5.0 µg/L and 6.2 µg/L for amoxicillin, cloxacillin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, respectively. These results suggest frequent occurrence of antibiotic residues in some milk from the selected markets, which may be posing a public health risk to consumers.
- ItemArctic sea ice reconstruction for the past 500 years using palaeo-based proxies: a case study of PIP25 biomarker(2015) Gill, Navpreet; Furze, Mark F.A.; Mugo, Samuel; Pieńkowski, Anna J.To deduce paleoclimatic changes attributable to variability in the sea ice, a long-term record of sea-ice is required, beyond the time period covered by direct instrumental monitoring. A recent proxy for Arctic Ocean sea-ice has been developed based on the analysis of an isomer of C25, also known as IP25 (Ice proxy with 25 carbo atoms). In addition, other phytoplankton - derive biomarkers such as brassicasterol (Phytoplankton marker - IP25 index; PIP25) are employed to confirm sea ice change deductions for the past 500 years.
- ItemCandida antarctica B lipase loaded microreactor for the automated derivatization of lipids(2016) Mugo, Samuel; Tiedemann, KyleA key bottleneck in the profiling of lipids is the multistep derivatization required prior to gas chromatography (GC) analysis. A single in-vial lipid derivatization and analysis may significantly minimize sample loss and improve analytical sensitivity. A cotton fiber supported poly(glycidylmethacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) polymer microbrush microreactor loaded with Candida antarctica lipase B was developed for the facile conversion of triacylglycerols into fatty acid ethyl ester derivatives for gas chromatograph – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The polymer microbrush microreactor was fabricated in effort to provide efficient, simplified, cost-effective, and high throughput GC-MS determination of triacylglycerols. The polymer microbrush microreactor was used as an in-vial triacylglycerol transesterification platform, with economical sample consumption of less than or equal to 100 µL and significant reduction of reagents. To evaluate the polymer microbrush microreactor performance for lipids, a triolein standard and camelina oil triacylglycerols were quantitatively transformed into ethyl oleate and fatty acid ethyl esters, respectively, following a three hour reaction time. The lipase loaded cotton fiber supported poly (glycidylmethacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) polymer microbrush microreactors were reusable for up to five times for quantitative transesterification with minimal loss of lipase activity.
- ItemChemical composition, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities of Ixora scheffleri subspecies keniensis essential oil(2020) Njenga, Peter K.; Mugo, SamuelBackground: Essential oil (EO) obtained from Ixora scheffleri subspecies (subsp.) keniensis has valuable biological properties and can play a possible therapeutic role because of its antimicrobial and antioxidant nature. Aim: In this article, the chemical constituents, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant capacity of the EO obtained from Ixora scheffleri subsp. keniensis were determined using standard procedures. Setting: Plant material collection, essential oils extractions and antimicrobial assays were performed at Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Department of Botany Laboratories. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometry (GC/MS) analysis was carried out at the Physical Science Laboratory, MacEwan University, Canada. Methods: The chemical constituents were determined using GC/MS. The total phenol content was evaluated using the Folin–Ciocalteu procedure. The antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene linoleic acid assays. The antimicrobial assay was performed using the disc diffusion method. Results: The total phenol content of the EO was estimated to be 91.6 µg/mg ± 0.5 µg/mg. The antioxidant activity of EO obtained from Ixora relative to ascorbic acid was found to be 52% using the β-carotene linoleic acid assay. The DPPH scavenging activity of 30 µg/mL EO obtained from Ixora and 30 µg/mL ascorbic acid was 81.65% and 97.0%, respectively. The EO was found to have significant susceptibility against Escherichia coli, and intermediate susceptibility against Candida albicans. However, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed complete resistance. Conclusion: The in vitro chemical compositional analysis of EO obtained from Ixora scheffleri subsp. keniensis confirms the presence of phenolic compounds attesting to the antioxidant properties and antimicrobial properties.
- ItemDepletion of hormones and antimicrobials in cattle manure using thermophilic anaerobic digestion(2016) Withey, Jonathan M.; Mugo, Samuel; Zhou, Ting; Rosser, Patrick; Gao, TiejunThe fate and effect of hormone and antimicrobial residues in the manure of therapeutically treated cattle is of considerable concern because of the adverse effects of environmental loading of these chemicals. The objective of this study was to determine the depletion of tylosin (TYL), chlortetracycline (CTC), sulfamethazine (SMZ) and megestrol (MEG) using thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD).
- ItemDetermination of β-estradiol by surface-enhance raman spectroscopy (SERS) using a surface imprinted methacrylate polymer on nanoporous biogenic silica(2021) Mugo, Samuel; Lu, WeihaoA phytoplankton derived nanoporous biogenic silica (BS) scaffold grafted with polymethacrylate β-estradiol molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) film (MIP@BS) is reported as a selective platform for the determination of β-estradiol using surfaced-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The biogenic silica nanoparticles provided high surface area support for the MIP while serving as an active signal enhancement substrate for SERS. The MIP@BS platform demonstrated an excellent linear response (R2 = 0.9996) between 0.1 and 4 ng/mL of β-estradiol standards. The limit of detection (LOD) for the MIP@BS SERS sensor for β-estradiol was 0.073 ng/mL. The MIP@BS SERS sensors were successfully evaluated for the determination of β-estradiol in milk, while demonstrating good stability and reusability.
- ItemDisposable capacitive biosensor for dopamine sensing(2020) Dhanjai; Yu, Nancy; Mugo, SamuelThe present paper reports fabrication of a disposable tyrosinase (Tyr) biosensor for rapid detection of dopamine. Tyr immobilized polyaniline/carbon nanotubes/cellulose nanocrystals (Tyr@PANI/CNTs/CNC) conductive film was fabricated on polyvinyl acetate (PVA) transparency and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Tyr catalyzed dopamine oxidation to o-dopaquinone was analysed by CV and capacitance was recorded. PANI/CNTs/CNC film acted as a suitable enzyme support which also showed its synergistic effect in accelerating the biocatalytic oxidation reaction. Tyr biosensor exhibited excellent reproducibility, and specificity towards dopamine with correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9508 and limit of detection (LOD) of 1.57 nM within linear concentration range of 7–1000 mM. The study suggested practical utilization of disposable biosensor towards dopamine detection in biological fluids.
- ItemEditorial: Advanced nanomaterials for biological applications(2018) Ahmed, Faheem; Azam, Ameer; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Mugo, SamuelNanomaterials have been widely studied for many years and they have also generated an intense scientific interest due to a wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, optical, and electronic fields. Nanomaterials have drawn attention based on the few properties they exhibit like their surface to mass ratio and the reactivity of their surface. Also, the control of composition, size, shape, and morphology of nanomaterials is an essential cornerstone for the development and application of nanomaterials and nanoscale devices. The selection of material depends on factors such as (i) required size of nanoparticles, (ii) aqueous solubility and stability, (iii) surface characteristics as charge and permeability, or (iv) degree of biodegradability, biocompatibility, and toxicity. This special issue holds 3 reviews and 10 original research articles.
- ItemFacile synthesis of Au@α-Fe2O3@RGO ternary nanocomposites for enhanced electrochemical sensing of caffeic acid toward biomedical applications(2018) Bharath, G.; Alhseinat, E.; Madhu, R.; Mugo, Samuel; Alwasel, S.; Harrath, A. H.Demonstrated herewith is a novel eco-friendly Au@α-Fe2O3@RGO ternary nanocomposites using chlorophyll as reductants and stabilizers. Systematic characterizations studies confirm Au and α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles are uniformly decorated on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets. As a proof-of-concept, the developed Au@α-Fe2O3@RGO ternary nanocomposites were coated on a glass carbon electrode (GCE) and evaluated for electrochemical detection of caffeic acid. The electrochemical mechanism involves the synergistic electrocatalytic activity of Au and α-Fe2O3 towards caffeic acid oxidation, with the RGO serving as an efficient electron shuttling mediator–enhancing the sensor performance. The Au@α-Fe2O3@RGO modified GCE caffeic acid sensor exhibited a wide linear response range of 19–1869 μM, sensitivity of 315 μA μM−1 cm-2, and a detection limit of 0.098 μM at very low potential of 0.21 V. This ternary nanocomposite provides high catalytic performance as well as excellent selectivity toward caffeic acid. To demonstrate real life application of the Fe2O3@RGO modified GCE caffeic acid sensor, caffeic acid in a coffee sample was measured. The α-Fe2O3, Au-NPs, and conductive graphene sheets composites, result in a highly catalytic and stable electrode system, with no pulverization problems. As such, it is demonstrated herewith that the Fe2O3@RGO ternary nanocomposite electrode is rapid, highly stable, and sensitive, with promised for utilization in fabrication of other multifarious biosensors.
- ItemFlexible electrochemical aptasensor for cortisol detection in human sweat(2021) Mugo, Samuel; Alberkant, Jonathan; Bernstein, Nina; Zenkina, Olena V.This communication demonstrates an electrochemical DNA aptasensor for the detection of cortisol in human sweat. The aptasensor was fabricated via layer-by-layer assembly on stretchable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated with conductive nanoporous carbon nanotube-cellulose nanocrystals (CNC/CNT) film using a linker to a cortisol specific DNA aptamer. The flexible cortisol aptasensor had a dynamic range of 2.5–35 ng mL−1. The aptasensor precision was determined to be 2.7% relative standard deviation (%RSD) across the concentration dynamic range. The aptasensor was determined to have a limit of detection (LOD) of ∼ 1.8 ng mL−1. The aptasensor was demonstrated to have high selectivity to cortisol and was unresponsive to interfering species including glucose, sodium lactate, and β-estradiol. The aptasensor was successfully evaluated for the detection of cortisol in human sweat indicative of its high specificity.
- ItemFlexible molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for cortisol monitoring in sweat(2020) Mugo, Samuel; Alberkant, JonathanA selective cortisol sensor based on molecularly imprinted poly(glycidylmethacrylate-co ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (poly(GMA-co-EGDMA)) has been demonstrated for detection of cortisol in human sweat. The non-enzymatic biomimetric flexible sweat sensor was fabricated inexpensively by layer by layer (LbL) assembly. The sensor layers comprised a stretchable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) base with carbon nanotubes-cellulose nanocrystals (CNC/CNT) conductive nanoporous nanofilms. The imprinted (MIP) poly(GMA-co-EGDMA) deposited on the CNC/CNT was the cortisol biomimetric receptor. Rapid in analyte response (3 min), the cortisol MIP sensor demonstrated excellent performance. The sensor has a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.0 ng/mL ± 0.4 ng/mL, dynamic range of 10–66 ng/mL, and a sensor reproducibility of 2.6% relative standard deviation (RSD). The MIP sensor also had high cortisol specificity and was inherently blind to selected interfering species including glucose, epinephrine, β-estradiol, and methoxyprogestrone. The MIP was four orders of magnitude more sensitive than its non-imprinted (NIP) counterpart. The MIP sensor remains stable over time, responding proportionately to doses of cortisol in human sweat.
- ItemGraphene oxide films prepared using gelatin nanofibers as wearable sensors for monitoring cardiovascular health(2019) Liu, Y.; Meng, F.; Zhou, Y.; Mugo, Samuel; Zhang, QiangA gelatin nanofiber film that shows a failure tensile stress of 35 MPa, much stronger than conventional polyacrylamide hydrogels (<0.2 MPa), tough double network hydrogels (0.2–1.0 MPa), some engineering plastics such as polyethylene films (16 MPa) and polysulfones (1–10 MPa), is prepared by electrospinning. It is processed into a graphene oxide film, which exhibits high conductivity, via a high‐temperature treatment. A simple approach to prepare graphene oxide films using gelatin is provided. A highly sensitive and responsive wearable sensor is fabricated using the graphene oxide film, which is capable of sound recognition, apexcardiogram recording, and pulse spectrum measurement. The apexcardiogram is strongly associated with hemodynamic cardiac health, which reflects the cardiac process of ventricular contraction, blood ejection, diastole, semilunar valve open/close, atrioventricular valve valve open/close, etc. The developed cardiac sensor could be used to measure arterial stiffness index, a derivative of pulse spectrum, useful to evaluate artery walls stiffness and health status. Using the developed sensor, the detection result can be wirelessly relayed to mobile devices for personal cardiac health monitoring.
- ItemIntegrated microcentrifuge carbon entrapped glucose oxidase poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAm) microgels for glucose amperometric detection(2018) Mugo, Samuel; Berg, Darren; Bharath, G.This study demonstrates a miniaturized integrated glucose biosensor based on a carbon microbeads entrapped by glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAm) microgels. Determined by the Lowry protein assay, the pNIPAm microgel possesses a high enzyme loading capacity of 31 mg/g. The pNIPAm GOx loaded on the microgel was found to maintain a high activity of approximately 0.140 U determined using the 4-aminoantipyrine colorimetric method. The integrated microelectrochemical cell was constructed using a microcentrifuge vial housing packed with (1:1, w/w) carbon entrapped by pNIPAm GOx microgels, which played the dual role of the microbioreactor and the working electrode. The microcentrifuge vial cover was used as a miniaturized reference electrode and an auxiliary electrode holder. The device can work as biosensor, effectively converting glucose to H2O2, with subsequent amperometric detection at an applied potential of −0.4 V. The microelectrochemical biosensor was used to detect glucose in wide linear range from 30 µM to 8.0 mM, a low detection limit of 10 µM, a good linear regression coefficient (R2) of 0.994, and a calibration sensitivity of 0.0388 µA/mM. The surface coverage of active GOx, electron transfer rate constant (ks), and Michaelis-Menten constant (KMapp) of the immobilized GOx were 4.0 × 10−11 mol/cm2, 5.4 s−1, and 0.086 mM, respectively. To demonstrate the applicability and robustness of the biosensor for analysis of high sample matrix environment, glucose was analyzed in root beer. The microelectrochemical device was demonstrated for analysis of small sample (<50 µL), while affording high precision and fast signal measurement (≤5 s).
- ItemLipase-modified pH-responsive microgel-based optical device for triglyceride sensing(2015) Zhang, Qiang; Berg, Darren; Mugo, Samuel; Serpe, MichaelLipase-modified pH-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based microgels were synthesized. An optical device was subsequently fabricated by sandwiching the enzyme loaded responsive microgels between two thin Au layers, and their response to triolein, a model triglyceride, was investigated. The device's response depended on the triglyceride concentration, demonstrating its potential application as a triglyceride biosensor.