Browsing by Author "Pathak, Saurav"
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- ItemA two-staged approach to technology entrepreneurship: differential effects of intellectual property rights(2020) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraIn this article we examine how the strength of the intellectual property rights (IPR) regime drives technology entrepreneurship innovation (TEI). The latter is comprised of novel unfamiliar technological products and new business models, which in turn lead to new product-market combinations. We consider TEI to be a two-stage process that involves access to and use of new technologies and technological resources by entrepreneurs. While stronger IPR may constrain easy availability of new technologies and technological resources for entrepreneurs, using technology itself helps lead to TEI. We suggest that stronger IPR regimes could lead to TEI. The positive effect of TEI is felt through easier accessibility to the latest technologies and technology resources by entrepreneurs. Our model contributes to understanding the effect of strong IPR regimes on different stages of the innovation process.
- ItemAn institutional-level expectancy model of social entrepreneurship motivation(2016) Arthaud-Day, Marne; Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraWe draw on two prevailing theories of entrepreneurial activity - expectancy theory and institutional theory - to develop an integrated model of social entrepreneurship motivation. We pair the three pillars of the institutional environment (cognitive, normative, and regulatory) with the corresponding components of the expectancy model (expectancy [E], valence [V], and instrumentality [I]), and then utilize these theoretical pairings to select context-specific indicators for each environmental dimension. We hypothesize that subjective well-being (cognitive/expectancy), embeddedness values (normative/valence) and regulatory quality (regulatory/instrumentality) jointly predict the individual likelihood of engaging in social entrepreneurship. Based on expectancy theory, we further hypothesize the presence of significant interaction effects between subjective well-being and embeddedness (E x V) and all three country-level predictors together (E x V x I). We test our hypotheses on a sample of 142,449 individual-level responses clustered in 37 countries collected as part of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey in 2009. Our results support the premise that institutional environmental configurations have both direct and indirect effects on individual-level motivations to engage in social entrepreneurship.
- ItemConsequences of cross-cultural differences in perceived well-being for entrepreneurship(2021) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraIn this article, we empirically test a theory-based model that delineates the indirect effect of societal-level well-being, through societal-level self-expression values, on individual entrepreneurship. Using 881,636 individual-level responses obtained from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) from 44 countries and supplementing with country-level data from the World Values Survey (WVS), our results from multilevel cross-cultural analyses demonstrate that societal-level well-being - hedonic and eudaimonic - are positively related to societal-level self-expression values, and that self-expression values mediate the relation between both types of well-being and likelihood of individuals engaging in entrepreneurship. Hence, hedonic and eudaimonic well-being are distal whereas self-expression values are more proximal influencers of individual entrepreneurship. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
- ItemConsequences of cultural leadership styles for social entrepreneurship: a theoretical framework(2019) Muralidharan, Etayankara; Pathak, SauravThe purpose of this conceptual article is to understand how the interplay of national-level institutions of culturally endorsed leadership styles, government effectiveness, and societal trust affects individual likelihood to become social entrepreneurs. We present an institutional framework comprising cultural leadership styles (normative institutions), government effectiveness (regulatory institutions), and societal trust (cognitive institutions) to predict individual likelihood of social entrepreneurship. Using the insight of culture–entrepreneurship fit and drawing on institutional configuration perspective we posit that culturally endorsed implicit leadership theories (CLTs) of charismatic and participatory leadership positively impact the likelihood of individuals becoming social entrepreneurs. Further, we posit that this impact is particularly pronounced when a country’s regulatory quality manifested by government effectiveness is supportive of social entrepreneurship and when there exist high levels of societal trust. Research on CLTs and their impact on entrepreneurial behavior is limited. We contribute to comparative entrepreneurship research by introducing a cultural antecedent of social entrepreneurship in CLTs and through a deeper understanding of their interplay with national-level institutions to draw the boundary conditions of our framework.
- ItemContextualizing technology adoption and self-expression for technology entrepreneurial innovation(2020) Muralidharan, Etayankara; Pathak, SauravThis article highlights the role of societal-level self-expression values and national-level extent of technology adoption for individual-level likelihood of engaging in technology entrepreneurial innovation. We posit that the effect of self-expression on entrepreneurial innovation is indirect – mediated positively by national-level extent of technology adoption, thereby rendering modes and mechanisms of technology adoption in a country as a more proximal whereas values as a more distal antecedent of technology entrepreneurial innovation. We infer that the benefits and effectiveness of government efforts geared towards improving formal institutional structures that assist technology entrepreneurial innovation would however only be felt if those that adopt newer technologies are self-expressive in the first place. Implications for theory, policy, and future empirical research are also discussed.
- ItemCulturally endorsed leadership styles and entrepreneurial behaviors of women(2018) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraExtant research has yet to find leadership patterns that are particularly relevant to entrepreneurship. While the entrepreneurial process has previously been seen in the same vein as that of leadership, the links between leadership styles and women entrepreneurship studies have been conducted against a masculine backdrop. Although recent studies have begun to explore the relationship between the two fields, there are limited studies considering the relationship from a gender perspective. Considering that entrepreneurs are embedded in contexts, our study specifically seeks to address the above gap by examining how culturally endorsed leadership styles influence women's entrepreneurial behaviors.
- ItemDigitalization, institutions and new venture internationalization(2022) Brieger, Steven A.; Chowdhury, Farzana; Hechavarría, Diana M.; Muralidharan, Etayankara; Pathak, Saurav; Lam, Yan TongThis study examines the effect of digitalization on the internationalization of new ventures and further investigates the influence of a home country’s presence of institutional voids and digital infrastructure on the extent of internationalization by new ventures, with the prediction that a home country’s institutional voids and a weak digital infrastructure strengthen the positive relationship between new ventures’ digitalization and internationalization. Applying multilevel modeling on a sample of more than 6000 entrepreneurs from 62 countries the study offers empirical support for these predictions. The findings are robust to alternative specifications. Entrepreneurs using the internet to sell their products and services are more likely to focus on customers in foreign markets when they face institutional voids and a lack of digital infrastructure in their home countries. The study contributes as follows: From a theoretical view, it provides a better understanding of the boundary conditions of the digitalization-new venture internationalization linkage. From a practical perspective, the findings of the study suggest the complementary roles of institutional voids and digital infrastructure at home to help entrepreneurs grow domestically and facilitate their internationalization.
- ItemEconomic inequality and social entrepreneurship(2018) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraThis article explores the extent to which income inequality and income mobility—both considered indicators of economic inequality and conditions of formal regulatory institutions (government activism)—facilitate or constrain the emergence of social entrepreneurship. Using 77,983 individual-level responses obtained from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey of 26 countries, and supplementing with country-level data obtained from the Global Competitiveness Report of the World Economic Forum, our results from multilevel analyses demonstrate that country-level income inequality increases the likelihood of individual-level engagement in social entrepreneurship, while income mobility decreases this likelihood. Further, income mobility negatively moderates the influence of income inequality on social entrepreneurship, such that the condition of low income mobility and high income inequality is a stronger predictor of social entrepreneurship. We discuss implications and limitations of our study, and we suggest avenues for future research.
- ItemEntrepreneurial re-entry post an economic crisis(2022) Muralidharan, Etayankara; Pathak, SauravIn this chapter, insights from prospect theory and institutional theory are used to explore how societal level well-being and inter-personal trust interplay with political stability of the country to facilitate re-entry of entrepreneurs who have exited because of an economic crisis. The conceptual model presented suggests that informal institutional conditions of societal well-being, inter-personal trust, and their interplay with political stability of the country are key to subsequent entrepreneurial intensions by entrepreneurs who have exited unfavourably during an economic crisis. The suggestions of the model are used to discuss implications related to the present COVID-19 pandemic and survival of entrepreneurship after the pandemic.
- ItemGLOBE leadership dimensions: implications for cross-country entrepreneurship research(2018) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraWe use the understanding of culturally endorsed leadership theories (CLTs), and also draw upon theoretical and empirical insights from the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) project (Dorfman et al., 2012), to propose future research avenues that contribute to the literature exploring the role of cultural leadership styles in influencing entrepreneurial behaviors across different cultures. Our attempt here is to address both of these gaps and add to extant literature that integrates leadership and entrepreneurship research by introducing a cultural leadership paradigm that advances our understanding of the emergence of entrepreneurs as leaders across different cultures.
- ItemHome country factors and the decision to internationalize technology-based new ventures: a multi-level study of early-stage entrepreneurs(2014) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, Etayankara; Laplume, AndréUsing Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey of over 25,000 nascent and new entrepreneurs from 2005-2008 and 45 countries, we predict their internationalization decisions based on three domestic institutions. Results indicate that stronger regulatory environment, smaller home market, and weaker innovation environment favor internationalization. Interaction results indicate that strong regulatory environment helps overcome the negative effect of a large home market towards internationalization and that it also facilitates internationalization by aiding to acquire resources necessary for innovation that may be lacking domestically. Finally, a larger home market size reduces the need to internationalize to compensate for lacking innovation resources.
- ItemHome country institutions and international entrepreneurship - a multi-level framework - institutions and international entrepreneurship(2020) Muralidharan, Etayankara; Pathak, SauravThe extent of internationalization by early-stage entrepreneurial firms may depend upon home country institutional conditions. Using insights from institutional theory, this chapter suggests that national-level institutional conditions facilitate or constrain the efforts made by early-stage entrepreneurs to internationalize. Given the strong linkages between entrepreneurs and the enterprises they drive, the multi-level framework proposed in this study suggests that a strong national system of innovation and better regulatory quality, which supports early internationalization by new entrepreneurial firms. Smaller domestic markets induce such firms to explore overseas markets for their products. The framework also suggests that a strong regulatory environment positively moderates the effects of national innovation systems and domestic market size on the extent of early internationalization. While implications for the internationalization process are discussed, specific reference to the importance of policy to support internationalization by early entrepreneurial firms is made.
- ItemImplications of culturally implicit perspective of emotional intelligence(2020) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraThis article proposes a culturally implicit perspective of emotional intelligence and introduces the notion of culture-specific emotional intelligence (CSEI). Emotional intelligence (EI) as a construct has predominantly been associated with the individual. Given that emotions are also implicit beliefs and that their experience, expression, and management are known to be driven by cultural values, we suggest EI to be culturally embedded. We therefore suggest that EI is culture-specific. Culture-specific EI serves as an important social resource affecting behaviors. We provide a brief review of literature that elucidates the multi-level nature of EI and highlights the role of culture as both antecedent and moderator of CSEI. Implications for theory and cross-cultural phenomena are discussed.
- ItemInformal institutions and international entrepreneurship(2016) Muralidharan, Etayankara; Pathak, SauravThis study examines the influence of three informal institutions, performance orientation, self-expression and social desirability, on the extent of internationalization by early stage entrepreneurial firms. We employed multi-level modeling techniques using 20,656 individual-level responses obtained from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey for 39 countries from 2001 to 2008, and supplementing with country-level data obtained from the World Values Survey (WVS) and the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) study. The results demonstrate that high performance orientation, high self-expression, and low social desirability of entrepreneurship in societies increase the extent of internationalization by early-stage entrepreneurial firms. The study promotes new theory and empirical findings on the relationship between informal institutions and entrepreneurial agency.
- ItemInformal institutions and their comparative influences on social and commercial entrepreneurship: the role of in-group collectivism and interpersonal trust(2016) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraWe use insights from institutional theory to study how societal collectivism and societal trust facilitate or constrain the emergence of social entrepreneurship (SE) and commercial entrepreneurship (CE). Using 58,918 individual-level responses obtained from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey of 27 countries and supplementing with country-level data obtained from the World Values Survey (WVS) and the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) study, our results from multilevel analyses demonstrate that while societal collectivism decreases the likelihood of CE, it increases that of SE. Further, while societal trust influences both SE and CE positively, the strength of this positive influence is felt more strongly on SE than CE.
- ItemSocial inclusion and collective leadership for disadvantaged entrepreneurship: a theoretical perspective(2022) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraIn this conceptual article, we suggest that disadvantaged entrepreneurship is a contextualized phenomenon. Combining individual-level (micro-level) disadvantage theory of entrepreneurship with societal-level (macro-level) theory of diversity and inclusion and culturally endorsed implicit leadership theory, we discuss the influence of societal level social inclusion values and culturally endorsed collective leadership styles (Collective CLT) on disadvantaged individual’s participation in entrepreneurship. We also propose interaction effects between these two antecedents of disadvantaged entrepreneurship. Societal level collective CLT is conceptualized as a shared cultural leadership style that (1) fosters sharing of leadership roles (2) encourages shared decision making, (3) promotes working in teams towards achieving shared goal through common actions, and (4) establishes high performance standards. Societal-level inclusion value would foster disadvantaged individuals’ participation in entrepreneurship through enhancing the effectiveness of collective CLT. A brief description on operationalization and empirical treatment of the two antecedents will also be presented. We also discuss the implications of this study for theory as well as for practice.
- ItemSocietal ethics and social entrepreneurship: a cross-cultural comparison(2019) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraUsing multilevel modeling and data from 26 countries that include 93,439 individual-level responses on social entrepreneurship for the year 2015, we seek to understand how societal-level ethical orientations impact the likelihood of individuals engaging in social entrepreneurship. We develop a multidimensional representation of societal ethics, in that we draw close parallels between the three institutional pillars—normative, cognitive, and regulatory—with three forms of ethics and use this understanding to predict their effects on the demand for and supply of social entrepreneurs. We find that low behavioral ethics (normative ethics) at the societal level provides opportunities for individuals to become social entrepreneurs. Furthermore, while unselfishness (cognitive ethics) motivates individuals to become social entrepreneurs, high public-sector ethics (regulatory ethics) provides the institutional support for such entrepreneurs to thrive. We contribute to cross-cultural comparative entrepreneurship by providing ethical antecedents of social entrepreneurship through a deeper understanding of the influence of ethics as national-level institutions.
- ItemSocietal-level collectivism and trust: influence on social and commercial entrepreneurship (summary)(2014) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraWe use insights from social capital theory and culture perspective to study how societal-level collectivism and trust facilitate or constrain the emergence of social and commercial entrepreneurship. Using 60,000 individual-level responses obtained from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey of 28 countries and supplementing with country-level data obtained from the World Values Survey (WVS) and the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) study, our results demonstrate that while societal collectivism decreases the likelihood of commercial entrepreneurship, it increases those of social entrepreneurship. Further, while societal-level trust influences both social and commercial entrepreneurship positively, the strength of this positive influence is felt more strongly on social entrepreneurship than commercial.
- ItemSustainability, transformational leadership, and social entrepreneurship(2018) Muralidharan, Etayankara; Pathak, SauravThis article examines the extent to which culturally endorsed transformational leadership theories (CLTs) and the sustainability of society, both considered societal level institutional indicators, impact the emergence of social entrepreneurship. Using 107,738 individual-level responses from 27 countries for the year 2009 obtained from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey, and supplementing with country-level data obtained from Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) and Sustainability Society Foundation (SSF), our findings from multilevel analysis show that transformational CLTs and sustainability conditions of society positively influence the likelihood of individuals becoming social entrepreneurs. Further, the effectiveness of transformational CLTs matters more for social entrepreneurship when the sustainability of society is low, which suggests the interaction between cultural leadership styles and societal sustainability. This article contributes to comparative entrepreneurship research by introducing strong cultural antecedents of social entrepreneurship in transformational CLTs and societal sustainability. We discuss various implications and limitations of our study, and we suggest directions for future research.
- ItemThe role of emotional intelligence in the culture-entrepreneurship fit perspective(2020) Muralidharan, Etayankara; Pathak, SauravValues are at the core of cultures, and this view has also dominated research on cross-cultural comparative entrepreneurship. However, empirical evidence relating cultural values and entrepreneurial behaviors has been mixed. Scholars have therefore suggested that cultural values may influence entrepreneurship only indirectly, thereby suggesting the existence of intermediary mechanisms linking cultural values and entrepreneurship. One such mechanism could be through the influence of culture-specific emotional intelligence (CSEI) on entrepreneurial behaviors. CSEI can be explained as culturally driven implicit beliefs rather than it being a direct manifestation of overarching cultural values, several manifestations of which shape entrepreneurial behaviors differently across countries. As such, CSEI has a unique position in the culture-entrepreneurship fit perspective.