Browsing by Author "Wei, William Xiaojun"
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- ItemA preliminary forecast of the production status of China’s Daqing oil field from the perspective of EROI(2014) Xu, Bo; Feng, Lianyong; Wei, William Xiaojun; Hu, Yan; Wang, JianliangEnergy return on investment (EROI) and net energy are useful metrics for analyzing energy production physically rather than monetarily. However, these metrics are not widely applied in China. In this study, we forecast the Daqing oilfield’s EROI from 2013 to 2025 using existing data for crude oil and natural gas production and the basic rules of EROI. Unfortunately, our calculations indicate that the oilfield’s EROI will continuously decline from 7.3 to 4.7, and the associated net energy will continuously decline from 1.53 × 1012 MJ to 1.25 × 1012 MJ. If China’s energy intensity does not decline as planned in the next ten years, then the EROI of Daqing will be even lower than our estimates. Additionally, relating the EROI to the monetary return on investment (MROI) in a low production and high intensity scenario, Daqing’s EROI will decline to 2.9 and its MROI will decline to 1.8 by 2025. If the “law of minimum EROI” and the assumed “minimum MROI” are taken into account, then we estimate that both energy pressure and economic pressure will restrict Daqing’s production by 2025.
- ItemAssets of origin? Chinese multinational enterprises amidst the Belt and Road initiative(2020) Wang, Liang; Yan, Haifeng; Yang, Xiaohua; Ciabuschi, Francesco; Wei, William XiaojunThis article reviews the current literature on the implications of the Belt and Road (B&R) Initiative for Chinese multinational enterprises (CMNEs) and calls for further empirical investigations of the motivations, processes, and consequences of the expansion of CMNEs into B&R countries. We posit that the rapid expansion of CMNEs in these countries indicates assets, rather than liabilities, for the county of origin. Empirical studies in this special issue provide new insights into what is “Chinese” about Chinese foreign direct investment in B&R countries and how the “assets of origin” may play a role in CMNEs' expansion in B&R countries.
- ItemBelt‐and‐Road Initiative: driving the need to understand intellectual capital in Chinese multinational enterprises(2020) Wei, William Xiaojun; Swallow, Phillip; Kong, Eric; Thomson, Stanley BruceChina's Belt‐and‐Road Initiative (BRI) is one of the most ambitious trade and development projects in history which intends to link Chinese multinational enterprises (CMNEs) to the Asian subcontinent, the Middle East, Africa, and Europe through two trade routes, land and sea. The project involves infrastructure development, human knowledge, and international relations to develop trade relationships. Increased competition along the two routes will see other governments taking initiatives to protect the business community in their nations; thus, adding barriers that must be overcome by CMNEs. The success of CMNEs in the BRI relies on the three components—structural, human, and relational—which are the three components of intellectual capital (IC). Through the use of IC CMNEs can assess their strengths and weaknesses. It will be the understanding of these strengths and weaknesses which will drive the success or failure of CMNEs.
- ItemDoes China’s outward direct investment improve the institutional quality of the belt and road countries?(2020) Pan, Chunyang; Wei, William Xiaojun; Muralidharan, Etayankara; Liao, Jia; Andreosso-O'Callaghan, BernadetteThis article investigates the effects of China’s outward direct investment (ODI) on the institutional quality of the Belt and Road (B&R) countries. Based on a panel data set of 63 B&R countries during the period 2003 to 2016, we find that China’s ODI improves the institutional quality of B&R countries not only in the short run but also in the long run. Further, although China’s ODI exerts no differential impacts on host country institutional dimensions of “control of corruption,” “government effectiveness,” and “political stability” in countries with different natural resource endowments, it improves their institutional dimensions of “regulatory quality” and “rule of law,” implying that China’s ODI may help the host B&R countries minimize the “resource curse”. As one of the most important strategies for China’s opening-up development in the current era, the B&R initiative serves as means to promote sustainable development of B&R countries. The article therefore contributes to existing scholarship on the institutional effects of China’s ODI and sheds light on the mechanisms that drive sustainable development.
- ItemGerman investment in Ireland and in the central and east European countries(2007) Wei, William Xiaojun; Andreosso-O'Callaghan, Bernadette; Wuntsch, Michael vonThis paper draws on the findings of a questionnaire survey and the results of interviews on German multinational companies’ (MNCs) investment location choices in both Ireland and the EU new member countries. It focuses on the investigation of the internationalisation strategies and location choices of German manufacturing MNCs against the background of growing regional economic integration, and in particular the fifth EU enlargement. Based on the examination of FDI data, the study also aims at highlighting the current level of German FDI in the above destinations and at discussing possible future German FDI trends.
- ItemHow do manufacturing enterprises construct e-commerce platforms for sustainable development? A case study of resource orchestration(2020) Hu, Jingbo; Ouyang, Taohua; Wei, William Xiaojun; Cai, JiaweiThe existing literatures mainly focus on the pricing, strategic significance and sustainable development characteristics of the e-commerce platform, and lack deep research on mechanisms in the process of construction like main structure of recourses and driving force. This paper takes Haier as a Chinese example and explores how manufacturing enterprises create and develop the sustainable e-commerce platform. The research findings show that: (1) An e-commerce platform respectively carries the functions of sales channels, service differences and innovation incubation in different stages of the manufacturing enterprises’ sustainable development; (2) For managing e-commerce platform of manufacturing enterprises’ sustainable development, resource orchestration can effectively realize the integration of value creation and resource; (3) Finally, it further reveals that the driving power which resource orchestration continuously promotes for the sustainable e-commerce platforms to construct is from the co-creation value of manufacturers and users. This paper discusses the structure of e-commerce platforms based on the main characteristics of each resource, and systematically explores the mechanism and evolutionary driving force of resource orchestration to promote the construction of e-commerce platforms for the sustainable development. It complements and enriches the innovation ecosystem and resource orchestration theory, providing significant practical guidance to the sustainable development of manufacturing enterprises.
- ItemHow does home government influence the internationalization of emerging market firms? The mediating role of strategic intents to internationalize(2019) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Wei, William XiaojunThe purpose of this paper is to focus on the differential impact of government promotional measures and government ownership on two internationalization variables: location and speed of internationalization of emerging market multinationals (EMNEs). Central to the authors’ study is the mediating role of strategic intents to internationalize. In particular, we study how government impacts the resource-seeking, market-seeking and technology-seeking motives to internationalize. The empirical setting for the paper is Chinese companies that have internationalized via an equity based entry mode. The authors employ 672 firm responses collected by the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada and the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade. The empirical results demonstrate that different home government measures have differential impact on internationalization outcomes. Government promotional measures (such as direct incentives and bilateral agreements to support internationalization) have only an indirect effect on international location and speed through the effect they have on the strategic motives to internationalize; while government ownership in the company has a direct impact on international location. The study highlights that home governments are shaping EMNEs strategic intent. Home government can influence EMNEs internationalization choices by providing resource flows through financial resources and state ownership or through asset-accumulation mechanisms via promotional measures .Policy makers in emerging markets need to develop policies focused on the specific motivations that firms have when internationalizing. EMNEs are suggested to take advantage of government policies more intentionally. The theoretical contribution centers on identifying important mediating mechanisms pointing to the interplay between government policies and international location and speed of firms. The authors contribute to the growing stream of research on internationalization of emerging market firms by building a sound theoretical model and examining empirically the role of home government in the internationalization of EMNEs.
- ItemIntegration by emerging economy multinationals: perspectives from Chinese mergers and acquisitions(2017) Muralidharan, Etayankara; Wei, William Xiaojun; Liu, XiaoyuThe integration process of international mergers and acquisitions by emerging economy multinationals is fraught with challenges of liabilities of foreignness and country of origin. We use insights from institutional theory and draw on the experience of Chinese international mergers and acquisitions to explore these challenges faced by emerging economy multinationals during postmerger integration. We find that these challenges, which are primarily caused by informal institutional differences, can be overcome by developing organizational capabilities for integration and employing mechanisms for appropriate control and justice during the integration process. The study contributes to the ongoing discussions about the relevance of sociocultural influences in the successful integration of international mergers and acquisitions. Our framework proposes initiatives that managers from emerging economies can take to overcome postmerger integration challenges.
- ItemManaging political risks of Chinese contracted projects in Libya(2012) Zhang, Juan; Wei, William XiaojunThe contracted project is the basic form of SinoLibyan economic cooperation. The authors hope that Chinese constructors will learn from this case study. This article assesses the political risk for Chinese contracted projects at three levels and studies their countermeasures to this emergency and the effects of political risks on Chinese constructors in Libya. The research finds that Chinese constructors are not good at political risk management due to their traditional attitudes toward risk and the attitudes of the Chinese government toward overseas losses of Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs). However, Chinese SOEs are more experienced than private-owned enterprises in dealing with emergencies.
- ItemMNCs' R&D talent management in China: aligning practices with strategies(2019) Wei, William Xiaojun; Li, Q; Xin, K.; Pucik, V.This paper aims to propose practical recommendations in accordance with the strategic roles played by research and development (R&D) in multinational companies (MNCs).
- ItemModelling EU FDI deflection between the new EU member states and Chinese provinces(2008) Wei, William Xiaojun; Andreosso-O'Callaghan, BernadetteThe issue of regionalism and how it affects FDI allocation within and between regions has not yet been dealt with satisfactorily by the voluminous literature on FDI. The issue of FDI dispersion, or of how traditional recipients of FDI flows can be affected by rising competitive advantages in countries of the same region as well as in countries of other regions, has received little attention. This article introduces the concept of EU FDI deflection across regions and measures it for 14 chosen locations in the new EU member states and Chinese provinces against the background of the fifth EU enlargement.
- ItemOpen innovation knowledge management in transition to market economy: integrating dynamic capability and institutional theory(2020) Tran, Hien Thu; Santarelli, Enrico; Wei, William XiaojunThis study provides a theoretical framework and empirical evidence to argue that a knowledge management process under the open innovation paradigm brings a viable solution for firms, especially those in transition economies, to acquire valuable knowledge-based dynamic capabilities to respond to environmental changes and achieve desirable organizational performance. These knowledge-based capabilities in turn enable firms to enhance their economic performance in terms of productivity and profitability. Dynamic capabilities act as an intermediary that bridges firms’ open innovation efforts and their economic realization. Local institutional quality plays an important moderating role in this process. Micro-sized firms have not consistently obtained the expected economic benefits from their open innovation efforts, which require more policy attention. For empirical evidence, we consider a comprehensive range of measures for open innovation and dynamic capabilities. Our proposed hypotheses are tested in a set of seemingly unrelated equations by combining two datasets from the Vietnam SME survey and the Provincial Competitiveness Index survey. As a robustness check, we estimate the performance equation applying fixed-effect regression and one-year lag structure.
- ItemOrganizational response to goods failure complaints: the role of culture on perceptions of interactional justice and customer satisfaction(2021) Muralidharan, Etayankara; Guo, Wenxia; Fazel, Hesham; Wei, William XiaojunIt is well recognized that in a service failure context, cultural value orientations interact with firm responses to service failures to influence perceptions of fairness (justice) and satisfaction. We examine whether this effect is applicable in the case of goods failure complaint context. Using an experimental design with data from Hong Kong and Canada, we investigate how customer evaluations of firm responses are influenced by interplay of consumers’ value orientation and nature of firm responses to the goods failure complaint [whether complaint resolution is initiated by the firm (vs. initiated by the customer), customer is informed about the progress of complaint resolution (vs. not informed about the progress)]. Our findings reveal that the cultural values of collectivism and uncertainty avoidance do interact with the nature of firm’s response to influence perception of interactional justice. Finally, interactional justice positively impacts overall complaint resolution satisfaction.
- ItemProduct‐quality failures in international sourcing: effect of institutions(2016) Muralidharan, Etayankara; Wei, William Xiaojun; Zhang, Juan; Bapuji, HariIncreasing globalization has seen the emergence of hybrid products coming from different countries, which are the sourcing bases for multinationals. Such international sourcing decisions of multinational enterprises have been accompanied by concerns on product safety especially underscored by the increasing product failures leading to recalls from global supply chains witnessed in the recent past. While the past research has focussed largely on the consequences of recalls such as damage to the reputation of the firm and stock price erosion, the antecedents of such failures and recalls remain underresearched. We examine international sourcing through a multitheoretic lens to investigate how the unfavorability of institutions of the countries from where products are sourced increases the likelihood of product failures. We propose that international experience of the firm, supplier development initiatives, and the firm’s strategic nature of sourcing all moderate the relationship between institutional constraints and product-quality failures.
- ItemResearch on identifying important coefficients in Chinese sectors with high industrial wastewater discharge(2009) Zhipeng, Tang; Xue, Fu; Wei, William XiaojunThe industrial wastewater is one of the main sources of water pollution in China. Identifying important coefficients in the sectors with highly discharged wastewater provides government the rule of reducing discharge from the point of industrial association. This paper develops the losing information method, and then determines the important coefficients in sectors of industrial wastewater in 2002 and 2005.
- ItemStrategic entry and determinants of Chinese private enterprises into Africa(2013) Zhang, Juan; Wei, William Xiaojun; Liu, ZuanshiThe authors discuss the strategic entry of Chinese private enterprises (PEs) into Africa by analyzing their characteristics of host distribution and overseas companies’ function and type. They find that Chinese PEs tend to invest in countries where Chinese investment has already concentrated, that more Chinese PEs engage in manufacturing and services than in agriculture and mining and quarrying, and that Chinese PEs take higher risks by choosing the type of subsidiary companies to enter Africa. They also make an empirical study of the determinants of Chinese PEs compared with state-owned enterprises in the period 2002–2011 and found Chinese PEs in Africa are driven mainly by the motivation of market-seeking, not by resource-seeking; China’s imports from the host country also facilitate Chinese companies’ investment in Africa; and Chinese companies in Africa are risk-takers. At the end of the article, they study the case of Touchroad and verify the results of their empirical study.
- ItemStudy on the evolvement of technology development and energy efficiency - a case study of the past 30 years of development in Shanghai(2016) Wei, William Xiaojun; Chen, Dezhi; Hu, DaipingPrevious research in regional energy efficiency by using macro statistical data has demonstrated that technology development could improve regional energy efficiency. Since the start of reform and opening up in 1978, China has mainly adopted energy import and foreign direct investment to promote economic growth. At the same time, the country has also increased the input of technology and R&D to prompt technological reformation and imported technology absorption. However, there is limited research on the relationship between technology development and energy efficiency. Using the grounded theory method, the authors of this paper study the relationship between technology input-output and energy utilization efficiency in Shanghai over the past 30 years. They conclude that although the tactics of technology import and foreign direct investment can improve energy efficiency in the initial stages of modern industrialization, they cannot improve it continuously. In the more advanced stages of modern industrialization, the improvement of energy efficiency relies not only on increased R&D investment but also on R&D investment structure optimization and independent technological innovation.
- ItemSurvival strategy of OEM companies: a case study of the Chinese toy industry(2016) Chen, Dezhi; Wei, William Xiaojun; Hu, Daiping; Muralidharan, EtayankaraAlthough there have been many discussions on the status and development of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), theory on how they survive is minimal. Little is known about how OEMs survive and upgrade to other business models, such as original design manufacturers (ODMs) and original brand manufacturers (OBMs), in emerging economies. The purpose of this paper is to extend the theory on the survival path of OEMs from the perspective of emerging countries by examining how OEMs survive cost pressures and upgrade to ODMs or OBMs.
- ItemThe influence of motivations on international location choice in least developed, emerging and developed countries: evidence from Chinese MNEs(2022) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Wei, William XiaojunThis research aims to assess variations of motivations when studying international location decisions. In particular, this study aims to assess the influence of diverse motivations – seeking technology, seeking brand assets, seeking markets, seeking resources and escaping institutional constraints – as determinants of the international location choice of emerging market multinational enterprises (EM MNEs) entering least developed, emerging, and developed countries.
- ItemThe process of resource bricolage and organizational improvisation in information technology innovation: a case study of BDZX in China(2022) Hu, Haibo; Lu, Haitao; Huang, Tao; Wei, William Xiaojun; Mao, Chunbing; Thomson, Stanley BruceResearch has shown there is a connection between bricolage and improvization, but discussion about their dynamic relationship in fixed situations is limited. In the context of information technology (IT) innovation, three aspects of corporate strategic actions are analyzed in this article by the exploratory single case study of BDZX in China. The following results were found: (1) IT innovation has experienced a transformation from component to architectural innovation, triggering corporate strategic actions; (2) Resource bricolage in IT innovation process is divided into combined resources and resetting resources, and organizational improvization in IT innovation process is divided into integration capabilities and development capabilities; (3) In IT innovation, the impact of resource bricolage on companies is gradually increasing, while the impact of organizational improvization on companies is gradually decreasing.