Browsing Anthropology - Student Works by Title
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- ItemAncestry-specific variation in Rogers' method of sex estimation(2018) Simpson, Rachel; McKenzie, HughRogers’ (1999, 2009) visual method is a technique for estimating skeletal sex based on four traits of the distal humerus, and is valuable in cases of commingled or fragmented remains when use of more dominant cranial and pelvic methods is not possible. However, Rogers’ initial accuracy of 92% has not been replicated by subsequent tests of the method, and the role of biological ancestry in the accuracy of this method has not been sufficiently addressed. I conducted a blind test of the method on a sample of nineteenth-century American black and white individuals from the Hamann-Todd Collection. This test resulted in an overall accuracy of 67%, ranging from 54–73% between the two groups. These results demonstrate that accurate estimation of sex using the method is two times more likely for a white individual than for an black individual. More research is required to understand the cause of this variation. Prior to applying this method in bioarchaeological and forensic contexts, future should consider these results that the method is not consistently accurate across all human populations.
- ItemCults: to be or not to be: exploring the topic of cults within anthropology(2020) Fischer, Jamie; Long, JenniferDespite the significance of cults as a social group in other disciplines, anthropologists have paid little attention to these sub-cultures as a viable area of research. Social scientists in other disciplines, such as sociology and psychology, have explored cults as a social and mental phenomenon; yet, anthropological investigations tend to be limited to studying cargo cults outside North America. Sociologists have defined and categorized cults in numerous ways: as a social movement or a religious movement. In this presentation, I hypothesize that anthropologists do not study cults due to their methodological practices and theoretical approach to working with communities.
- ItemEthics in research: An overview of universal ethics and the perpetuation of inequality in academia(2021) Wiseman, Brittany; Biittner, Katie; Davis, MonicaEthics govern how research is conducted by Western institutions, though there are limitations in how effective codes of conduct can be in ensuring that research practice is truly ethical in all situations. Though practices have improved, there are several considerations that must still be met to ensure that research is both beneficial and respectful to all involved. The historical lack of repercussions that have accompanied Western research practice has functioned to further disadvantage Indigenous People, People of Color, and women. This has allowed for sexism, harassment, racism, and discrimination to continue. Existing ethical protocols are limited based on the inherent subjectivity in how ethics are perceived, where supplementary protocols should be created on a case by case basis that actively include and empower voices from local community members and researchers. Additionally, recognition of the past and present inequalities faced by marginalized groups is necessary to rectify the issues that these people face while they establish themselves in academic disciplines. This research project addresses the problems associated with “universal” ethical protocols, the disconnect that exists in the construction and ideological view of ethics between disciplines, and the ways that Western research practice has been shaped, including how the hierarchy present in academic institutions continues to marginalize and disadvantage certain groups of people, with particular emphasis on the perpetuation of racism and sexism.
- ItemIndigenous bodies and experimentation: the nutrition experiments conducted within the residential schools(2019) Greene, Liam; Toop, Rhianna; Zimmerman, Katie; Dawson, LeslieThe digital story embraces a subjective approach to display the conditions that led to, occurred during, and were produced in the nutrition experiments conducted in various residential schools. Both the immediate and ongoing (intergenerational) damages are discussed to display the horrific nature of the residential schools. Further, the contemporary action taken by both Indigenous peoples and non-Indigenous peoples, as a result of the nutrition studies becoming public, is shown. Interdisciplinary Dialogue Project.
- ItemIndigenous gender identities and ideologies: two-spirit identity in colonized North America(2019) Brown, Ian; Rychliski, Rebekah; Rodgers, Ben; McKinnon, Chase; Dawson, LeslieOur digital story explores the concept of two-spirit among Indigenous peoples in North America. Following a review of different two spirit identities amongst a variety of First Nations, we highlight the violence against two-spirit peoples as a result of colonization and contemporary movements to reclaim two-spirit identities within the broader contexts of healing and decolonization. Interdisciplinary Dialogue Project.
- ItemInvestigation of methodologies for fiberglass resin removal from bone(2015) Thew, Mellisa; McKenzie, HughA human skeleton that had formerly been used as a theatrical stage prop was improperly conserved using fiberglass resin, making it unsuitable for teaching collections. This project evaluates the use of solvents and heat for removing fiberglass from bone, in an attempt to return this skeleton to a more useful, and ethically responsible, condition.
- ItemIslamophobia(2017) Seifeddine, Nasreen; Twa, Jennifer; Scott, Jami; Hay, Samantha; Dawson, LeslieOur group digital story focuses on where the idea of Islamophobia comes from. We examine Islamophobia within a North American view. We bring forth the history, and what being Muslim really looks like / means and how the refugees are portrayed in the media.
- ItemPopulation-specific variation in the accuracy of Rogers’ method of sex estimation(2018) Simpson, Rachel; McKenzie, HughRogers’ (1) method of sex estimation is a visual technique that evaluates morphological variation in four traits of the distal posterior humerus. This method has the potential for widespread application in biological anthropology, but previous tests have been unable to replicate Rogers’ initial accuracy rate of 92%. Additionally, the role of populations in the accuracy of the method has not been sufficiently explored, as only one study (2) has controlled for it. Wanek (2) found differences in the accuracy of Rogers’ method correlated with different populations but concluded the method could be used on all human populations, regardless. This study tests Wanek’s (2) conclusion through a blind test of Rogers’ (1) original method, though it differs methodologically from previous studies (1–7) by seriating humeri according to trait expression, and by using logistic regression for analysis of results. In conducting a blind test on a sample of American black and white individuals from The Hamann-Todd Osteological Collection, I found that the method was 67% accurate overall, and that odds for a correct classification were 2.03 more likely for a white individual than for a black individual. Prior to applying this method in the future, bioarchaeologists and forensic anthropologists should consider these results within the context of their study.
- ItemResidential schools and the emotional, mental, spiritual and physical traumas inflicted on indigenous peoples(2019) Kanagasuriam, Selina; Cayre Maglanoc, Kristee; Warfa, Hamdi; Abdinoor, Meimuna; Dawson, LeslieThis digital story focuses on highlighting the trauma that the Indigenous communities endured during their time in the residential school system and following it. Indigenous peoples put emphasis on the holistic approach when it comes to aspects such as healing, education, etc. In this story, the holistic approach was also utilized to bring to light the painful truths of Indigenous suffering, by focusing mainly on the mental, physical, spiritual, and emotional wounds Indigenous peoples faced and continue to face even today.
- ItemStolen sisters(2019) Kuzio, Katelyne; Fleury, Jade; Garcia, Jessa; Dawson, Leslie“Stolen Sisters” is a powerful digital story which outlines the colonial impacts on Indigenous people which has contributed to the contemporary issue of Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls (MMIWG). “Stolen Sisters” provides information about current colonial perspectives of Indigenous women and how they need to be addressed, reflected upon, and challenged. Through Indigenous Knowledge surrounding the traditional roles of women, the meaning of the word ‘woman’ in the Cree language, and telling the stories of Indigenous women, “Stolen Sisters” aim is to provide education to the collegial public. Interdisciplinary Dialogue Project.
- ItemSyrian refugee crisis(2017) Abyan, Umulkhayr; Abyan, Umukalthuum; Mohamed, Narmien; Abdi, Maymuna; Dawson, LeslieThis digital story shows how Syria was before the civil war, during the civil war and after it, it also includes everything they had to deal with from Islamophobia to the struggles of fleeing their country to the misconceptions people have about Syrian refugees. The digital story sheds light on some of the issues Muslim Syrian refugees face when resettling in Canada.
- ItemThe osteological paradox: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence(2020) Head, Josalyne; Swanston, TreenaDuring the summer 2019 field season, ten human skeletons were excavated from the ongoing project (PAH-178) at the Hospital Hill Royal Navy Cemetery that was operational between the years of 1793-1822 on the island of Antigua, near English Harbour. As a student of Dr. Treena Swanston, a professor of MacEwan University, and one of the researchers invested in the project, I was hired as a research assistant and excavating archaeologist to assist with analyzing the skeletal remains excavated from a burial site associated with the Royal Navy Hospital for evidence of pathological changes. In studying disease on skeletal remains, paleopathologists look for evidence of skeletal changes or lesions associated with pathological conditions. In order for skeletal changes to occur, an individual must live with a disease or illness for an extended period of time, meaning those who succumb quickly will typically not show any skeletal evidence of bony changes or pathologies. This is known as the osteological paradox. However, we did not find any evidence of pathological changes at site PAH-178 during the 2019 field season.
- ItemThe Solutrean hypothesis: an examination of a lesser known model for the peopling of the Americas(2016) Woodford, William; Biittner, KatieThe objectives for this research project are to investigate the "Solutrean Hypothesis", which is often overlooked within the field of Anthropology, as well as by the general population as a whole. A summary of the model as well as evidence used to support and to challenge this model are presented. This model and the associated evidence used to support and to challenge the Solutrean Hypothesis are presented. This poster examines the published evidence for the peopling of the Americas and evaluates various models. Through this examination the intention is to gain a broader view on ancient humans and their capabilities to migrate vast distances. This will include a better understanding of the potential technologies they could have used to cross the North Atlantic Ocean.
- ItemUnderstanding terra preta: broader environmental implications of anthrosol use(2015) Hendrickson, Halle; Gililand, KristaRecent archaeological discoveries in the Amazon region are altering common perceptions on pre-Columbian indigenous populations as well as our understanding of Amazonian ecology. The presence of terra preta soil scattered throughout the Amazon Basin carries major implications – both for pre-Columbian indigenous populations of the region and for modern-day agricultural practices in the tropics. In a rapidly changing physical world, with the effects of deforestation and increasing atmospheric CO2 levels, the potential of anthropogenic soils and biochar are incredibly valuable.
- ItemWeaving heritage: the baskets of Iringa, Tanzania(2020) Greene, Liam; Biittner, KatieThis exhibition displays the technology of Iringa basket making through various media (i.e. raw materials, individual basket segments) and a variety of finished baskets. These are presented in order to display variation in both weave design and vessel function, while also giving viewers a better understanding of both the craft and ability of Iringa basket weavers. Photographs are used to present the tradition and cultural heritage value of Iringa baskets through the makers actions and abilities. The current poster was shown in combination with spoken word, various photographs capturing basket weaving technology and weaver abilities, and both physical basket components and finished baskets.