Department of Computer Science

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 43
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    Analyzing factors impacting COVID-19 vaccination rates
    (2023) Cho, Dongseok; Driedger, Mitchell; Han, Sera; Khan, Noman; Elmorsy, Mohammed; El-Hajj, Mohamad
    Since the approval of the COVID-19 vaccine in late 2020, vaccination rates have varied around the globe. Access to a vaccine supply, mandated vaccination policy, and vaccine hesitancy contribute to these rates. This study used COVID-19 vaccination data from Our World in Data and the Multilateral Leaders Task Force on COVID-19 to create two COVID-19 vaccination indices. The first index is the Vaccine Utilization Index (VUI), which measures how effectively each country has utilized its vaccine supply to doubly vaccinate its population. The second index is the Vaccination Acceleration Index (VAI), which evaluates how efficiently each country vaccinated their populations within their first 150 days. Pearson correlations were created between these indices and country indicators obtained from the World Bank. Results of these correlations identify countries with stronger Health indicators such as lower mortality rates, lower age-dependency ratios, and higher rates of immunization to other diseases display higher VUI and VAI scores than countries with lesser values. VAI scores are also positively correlated to Governance and Economic indicators, such as regulatory quality, control of corruption, and GDP per capita. As represented by the VUI, proper utilization of the COVID-19 vaccine supply by country is observed in countries that display excellence in health practices. A country’s motivation to accelerate its vaccination rates within the first 150 days of vaccinating, as represented by the VAI, was largely a product of the governing body’s effectiveness and economic status, as well as overall excellence in health practises.
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    A UNet pipeline for segmentation of new MS lesions
    (2021) Efird, Cory; Miller, Dylan; Cobzas, Dana
    A pipeline for the second multiple sclerosis segmentation challenge (MSSEG-2) hosted by MICCAI is proposed. Two FLAIR images taken at different time-points are used as a multi-channel input to a 3D CNN to detect new lesions. Patch sampling strategies are adopted to keep the input volume shape manageable in terms of memory requirements. To further improve results, multiple models and patch orientations are ensembled. Performance is evaluated against nn-UNet.
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    Stainless steel electrochemical capacitive microneedle sensors for multiplexed simultaneous measurement of pH, nitrates, and phosphates
    (2022) Mugo, Samuel; Lu, Weihao; Lemieux, Stephane
    Concerns for agri-food safety and environmental management require development of simple to use and cost- and time effective multiplex sensors for point-of-need (PON) chemical analytics by public end-user. Simultaneous detection of nitrates, phosphates, and pH is of importance in soil and water analysis, agriculture, and food quality assessment. This article demonstrates a suite of stainless steel microneedle electrochemical sensors for multiplexed measurement of pH, nitrate, and phosphate using faradaic capacitance derived from cyclic voltammetry as the mode of detection. The multi-target microneedle sensors were fabricated by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly in a stainless steel hypodermic microneedle substrate. For nitrate sensing, the stainless steel was coated with carbon nanotube/cellulose nanocrystal (CNT)/CNC) decorated with silver nanoparticles (Ag). For pH measurement, the polyaniline (pANI) was coated onto the CNT/CNC@Ag film, while for phosphate detection, the CNT/CNC/Ag @pANI microneedle was further decorated with ammonium molybdenum tetrahydrate (AMT). The microelectrode platforms were characterized by FTIR, Raman, and microscopic techniques. The nitrate- and phosphate-based microneedle electrochemical sensors had excellent selectivity and sensitivity, with a determined limit of detection (LOD) of 0.008 mM and 0.007 mM, respectively. The pH microneedle sensor was responsive to pH in the linear range of 3–10. The three microneedle sensors yielded repeatable results, with a precision ranging from 4.0 to 7.5% RSD over the concentration ranges tested. The inexpensive (~ 1 $ CAD) microneedle sensors were successfully verified for use in quantification of nitrate, pH, and phosphate in brewed black coffee as a real sample. As such, the microneedle sensors are economical devices and show great promise as robust platforms for PON precision chemical analytics.
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    User testing for serious game design: improving the player experience
    (2022) Shaw, Ross; Sperano, Isabelle; Andruchow, Robert; Cobzas, Dana
    This case study reflects on our use of user testing during a research project in which we designed a serious video game, “Life on the Edge.” The target audience of the game is first-year post-secondary biology students. As we designed the game, user testing was a critical component that allowed us to identify issues. Any issues that interfere with the flow or enjoyment of a video game can be distracting to players. In what follows, we will describe the research design and discuss the processes for testing a serious video game that will allow you to identify game issues successfully. How you recruit participants, test players, and prioritize player feedback is a component of effective user testing and improving your game. With user testing, we were able to identify problems in the game, prioritize them, and address them. By using variable user testing methods, you can adapt to the changing needs of your game project and develop a successful serious video game.
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    Novikov groups are right-orderable
    (2022) Lemieux, Stephane
    Novikov groups were introduced as examples of finitely presented groups with unsolvable conjugacy problem. It was Bokut who showed that each Novikov group has a standard basis and thus a solvable word problem. Further, he showed that for every recursively enumerable degree of unsolvability d there is a Novikov group whose conjugacy problem is of degree d. In the present work, we show that Novikov groups are also right-orderable, thus exhibiting the first known examples of finitely presented right-orderable groups with solvable word problem and unsolvable conjugacy problem.