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- Item11,000 yrs of environmental change in the Northwest Passage; a multiproxy core record from central Parry Channel, Canadian High Arctic(2013) Pieńkowski, Anna J.; England, John H.; Furze, Mark F.A.; Blasco, Steve; Mudie, Peta J.; MacLean, Briana rare paleoenvironmental archive from the understudied west-central Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Lithological, biogeochemical, and microfossil (dinoflagellate cysts, non-pollen palynomorphs, benthic and planktonic foraminifera) characteristics, in combination with a chronostratigraphy based on seventeen radiocarbon dates, show seven prominent paleoenvironmental episodes since the end of the last regional glaciation. The basal diamict (Zone I) records decoupling of previously grounded glacial ice, followed by ice-proximal conditions (Zone IIa) commencing at ~ 10.8 cal ka BP (age-depth model extrapolation). After an interval of pervasive sea-ice (Zone IIb), ice-distal conditions are established (Zone IIc). Although sparse microfossils are present in glaciomarine sediments (Zone II), noticeable biological activity with heightened abundances and diversities across all groups begins in the postglacial Zone III (10.3–10.0 cal ka BP) when planktonic foraminifera (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma) appear. As planktonics are excluded from the study area today (due to shallow inter-channel sills), this likely signals the inflow of relatively warm and saline Atlantic-derived Arctic Intermediate Water below 250 m, presumably facilitated by glacio-isostatically enhanced deglacial water depths. The subsequent Zone IV (10.0–7.0 cal ka BP), characterized by heightened biological productivity in both plankton and benthos and reduced seasonal sea-ice cover, may correspond to a previously proposed Holocene Thermal Maximum. This apparent amelioration ends by the mid Holocene (Zone V; 7.0–5.7 cal ka BP) when Arctic Intermediate Water is excluded from the study area and water depths approach modern values. High-Arctic conditions with seasonal sea-ice cover, a circulation dominated by Arctic Ocean Surface Water, and microfossil assemblages similar to modern are found from ~ 5.7 cal ka BP onwards (Zones VI–VII). As only minor environmental fluctuations are apparent during the late Holocene, shorter-term climatic episodes (e.g. Little Ice Age) are not recognized in this record.
- Item2021 Canadian federal election, election report: Facebook use by political parties(2022) Boulianne, Shelley; Stevens, Leanne; Mullin, Samantha; Rondeau, Caroline; El-hakim, Yaseen; Johal, Sunpreet; Mamo, NatalieWe coded Facebook posts from a four-week period beginning August 23, 2021 and ending September 20, 2021. A team of six coders were trained using a codebook that includes more than 300 variables. This report covers a handful of the variables. Coders were given a Facebook link, which they opened in one window. Then in another window, they went through an online questionnaire hosted by SoSciSurvey.
- ItemA bird bone necklace from Amato, Acari Valley, Peru(2005) Valdez, Lidio M.This paper reports the recent discovery of a bird bone necklace from Amato, an Early Intermediate Period site located in the Acari Valley of Peru. The necklace was found in association with an approximately 60 year-old adult male, around whom had been buried several dozen headless human individuals of different sexes and ages, the likely victims of ritual sacrifice. The necklace was made from about 200 carpometacarpus bones of a small bird species that remains to be identified.
- ItemA clear intention to effect such a modification: The NRTA and Treaty hunting and fishing rights(2000) Irwin, RobertThe purpose of this article is to fill a gap in the historical literature regarding the Natural Resources Transfer Agreements; specifically, it aims to "provide insights into the negotiations leading to section 12 of the NRTA and identify the intent and purpose of the framers." The author, Robert Irwin, notes that the Supreme Court has made several decisions (e.g., Frank v. The Queen, Moosehunter v. The Queen, R. v. Horseman, R. v. Gladue, etc.) that have altered the understanding of Treaty rights and the NRTA regarding hunting and fishing rights, without the benefit of being able to draw on historical research on the NRTA, regarding the original intentions in its framing. Irwin asserts that in the construction of section 12 of the NRTA the Dominion intended "to ensure that Indians maintained their Treaty right of access to unoccupied Crown lands for the purpose of hunting, trapping and fishing;" it also "hoped to conserve game through wise management in the belief that this was important … because of Treaty rights;" and it recognized that hunting regulations and licensed fishing would be set by the provincial government. Irwin concludes by noting that the historical evidence suggests that "the government did not seek to extinguish and replace or merge and consolidate the Treaty rights with the NRTA."
- ItemA comparative profile of intimate partner sexual violence(2021) Jung, Sandy; Faitakis, Martina; Cheema, HarleenSexual violence is prevalent in abusive relationships and yet, has received substantially less attention than physical violence in relationships or sexual violence, in general. The present study compared intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) with non-sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence against other non-intimate partner victims on demographic data of perpetrators and victims, offence and police reporting features, and the perpetrators’ criminal history and recidivism. Sexual and violent assaults reported to local law enforcement that led to an arrest were randomly selected. Analyses revealed that IPSV occurrences took longer to report compared to the other violent occurrences. However, IPSV was similar to IPV occurrences in that weapons were rarely involved, occurrences were more likely outside of the downtown area, and perpetrators were younger. These findings contribute to our limited knowledge about IPSV perpetration and highlight avenues for future exploration in the literature.
- ItemA comparison of Canadian and American offender stereotypes(2013) Allison, Meredith; Sweeney, Laura; Jung, SandyOffender stereotypes of Canadians and Americans were compared via an inductive, open-ended method. Participants were asked to write down the race, gender, and age for eleven types of offenders. There was agreement between the two countries in terms of race (White for eight offender types), gender (male for eight offenders), and age (similar estimation of age for six offenders). However, Americans were more likely to state that the Armed Robber was Black. Participants in both countries indicated that the Drug Trafficker was Black, although, a third of Americans also indicated this offender type was Hispanic. The findings are discussed in relation to the demographic makeup of the general, and offender populations of each country.
- ItemA comparison of memory for homicide, non-homicidal violence, and positive life experiences(2009) Woodworth, Michael; Porter, Stephen; Brinke, Leanne ten; Doucette, Naomi; Peace, Kristine; Campbell, Mary AnnDefendants commonly claim amnesia for their criminal actions especially in cases involving extreme violence. While some claims are malingered or result from physiological factors, other cases may represent genuine partial or complete amnesia resulting from the psychological distress and/or extreme emotion associated with the perpetration of the crime. Fifty Canadian homicide offenders described their memories of their homicide, a non-homicide violent offense, and their most positive adulthood life experience. Self-reported and objective measures of memories for these events revealed that homicides were recalled with the greatest level of detail and sensory information. Although dissociative tendencies were associated with a self-reported memory loss, objective measures of memory quality did not reflect this perceived impairment, suggesting a failure of meta-memory. Recollections of positive life events were superior to those of non-homicidal violence, possibly due to greater impact and meaning attached to such experiences. Findings suggest that memory for homicide typically is enhanced by the powerful emotion associated with its perpetration.
- ItemA completely bounded noncommutative Choquet boundary for operator spaces(2019) Clouâtre, Raphaël; Ramsey, ChristopherWe develop a completely bounded counterpart to the noncommutative Choquet boundary of an operator space. We show how the class of completely bounded linear maps is too large to accommodate our purposes. To overcome this obstacle, we isolate the subset of completely bounded linear maps admitting a dilation of the same norm that is multiplicative on the associated C*-algebra. We view such maps as analogs of the familiar unital completely contractive maps, and we exhibit many of their structural properties. Of particular interest to us are those maps that are extremal with respect to a natural dilation order. We establish the existence of extremals and show that they have a certain unique extension property. In particular, they give rise to *-homomorphisms that we use to associate to any representation of an operator space an entire scale of C*-envelopes. We conjecture that these C*-envelopes are all *-isomorphic and verify this in some important cases.
- ItemA continuous model for microtubule dynamics with catastrophe, rescue and nucleation processes(2009) Hinow, Peter; Rezania, Vahid; Tuszynski, Jack A.Microtubules are a major component of the cytoskeleton distinguished by highly dynamic behavior both in vitro and in vivo referred to as dynamic instability. We propose a general mathematical model that accounts for the growth, catastrophe, rescue and nucleation processes in the polymerization of microtubules from tubulin dimers. Our model is an extension of various mathematical models developed earlier formulated in order to capture and unify the various aspects of tubulin polymerization. While attempting to use a minimal number of adjustable parameters, the proposed model covers a broad range of behaviors and has predictive features discussed in the paper. We have analyzed the range of resultant dynamical behavior of the microtubules by changing each of the parameter values at a time and observing the emergence of various dynamical regimes, that agree well with the previously reported experimental data. observing the emergence of various dynamical regimes, that agree well with reported experimental behavior.
- ItemA creditable performance under the circumstances? Suematsu Kenchô and the pre-Waley Tale of Genji(2010) Henitiuk, ValerieBefore Suematsu’s 1882 translation of the Tale of Genji, the information available in the West about Murasaki Shikibu’s masterpiece was sketchy and erroneous. The main objectives of this translator were to improve Japan’s political status by demonstrating that it has a rich literary tradition, and to make known to Westerners what is in effect that nation’s “cultural scripture” (Rowley). Reaction to his version was conflicted: readers and reviewers are curious about the previously unsuspected literary wealth presented to them, but struggle to comprehend and find points of reference. My article focuses on the circumstances that made possible this early representation of Japanese literature, while paradoxically keeping the Genji from being widely read and admired until Waley’s famous translation appeared some 40 years later. I argue that Suematsu, in using this book to critique Anglo-American imperialism, nonetheless reveals his own ambivalent relationship with the text and its author. Further, Western audiences were ill-equipped to judge what they were reading, as well as reluctant to accept a non-European interpreter, and thus the reception of this world masterpiece was long stalled for reasons that had little to do with literary or translation quality.
- ItemA critical review of the glaciomarine model for Irish Sea deglaciation; evidence from southern Britain, the Celtic shelf and adjacent continental slope(2001) Scourse, James D.; Furze, Mark F.A.In support of their ‘glaciomarine’ model for the deglaciation of the Irish Sea basin, Eyles and McCabe cited the occurrence of distal glaciomarine mud drapes onshore in the Isles of Scilly and North Devon, and of arctic beach-face gravels and sands around the shores of the Celtic Sea. Glacial and sea-level data from the southern part of the Irish Sea in the terminal zone of the ice stream and the adjacent continental slope are reviewed here to test this aspect of the model. The suggestion that the glacial sequences of both the Isles of Scilly and Fremington in North Devon are glaciomarine mud drapes is rejected. An actively calving tidewater margin only occurred early in the deglacial sequence close to the terminal zone in the south-central Celtic Sea. Relative sea-levels were lower, and therefore glacio-isostatic depression less, than envisaged in the glaciomarine model. Geochronological, sedimentological and biostratigraphical data indicate that the raised beach sequences around the shores of the Celtic Sea and English Channel were deposited at, or during regression soon after, interglacial eustatic highstands. Evidence for ice-rafting at a time of high relative sea-levels is restricted to a phase(s) earlier than the Late Devensian. These data indicate that the raised beach sequences have no bearing on the style of Irish Sea deglaciation.
- ItemA cross-channel marriage in limbo: Alexandre d’Arblay, Frances Burney, and the risks of revolutionary migration(2020) Summers, KellyIn late 1801, as the prospect of a truce between Britain and France raised the hopes of émigrés throughout the French Revolutionary diaspora, Alexandre-Jean-Baptiste Piochard d’Arblay took a momentous gamble. After a decade abroad, he crossed the English Channel in the hopes of resurrecting his military career back home. It all went spectacularly wrong, and he, his wife—the English writer Frances Burney—and their son found themselves stranded in Napoleonic France after the collapse of the Peace of Amiens in 1803. Then as now, d’Arblay usually warrants mention as General Lafayette’s aide-de-camp or Burney’s trusted scribe. His status as an émigré had a undeniable impact on his famous wife’s later life and work, but d’Arblay’s fraught homecoming also provides a revealing window into the messy return and reintegration of those who left France during the Revolution. Their mass re-migration has been largely neglected in the otherwise flourishing field of émigré studies. What is more, as committed partners pursuing a new form of marriage—one based on affection and intellect rather than property or parentage—d’Arblay and Burney were forced to tackle the perils of bi-national marriage in the dawning age of nationalism and total war. While navigating competing loyalties and tenuous finances, the fate of their family hinged on contingencies like the Brumaire coup d’état; partisan patronage networks; and the proliferating demands of revolutionary bureaucracy and the Napoleonic “security state.” The Burney-d’Arblays’ recurrent reunions and separations offer firsthand insight into the dizzying upheavals of the 1790s and the complexities of political reconciliation that followed.
- ItemA deep level set method for image segmentation(2017) Tang, Min; Valipour, Sepehr; Zhang, Zichen; Cobzas, Dana; Jagersand, MartinThis paper proposes a novel image segmentation approach that integrates fully convolutional networks (FCNs) with a level set model. Compared with a FCN, the integrated method can incorporate smoothing and prior information to achieve an accurate segmentation. Furthermore, different than using the level set model as a post-processing tool, we integrate it into the training phase to fine-tune the FCN. This allows the use of unlabeled data during training in a semi-supervised setting. Using two types of medical imaging data (liver CT and left ventricle MRI data), we show that the integrated method achieves good performance even when little training data is available, outperforming the FCN or the level set model alone.
- ItemA deeper inquiry into the association between lucid dreams and video game play(2014) Gackenbach, Jayne; Hunt, Harry T.After summarizing the previous research on the association between video game play, meditative absorption, and dream lucidity, three types of considerations of lucidity and gaming were explored in this chapter: the association of lucidity in gamers with metacognition, dream bizarreness, and nonlucid dream content. In terms of specific forms of metacognition in dreams, it appears that gaming adds a dimension to the lucid dreams of gamers such that their full potential for focused problem solving is expressed, very much like with the strategies of video gaming. Some research indicated gamers’ dream included an enhanced bizarreness, but lucidity was not found to mitigate that relationship. Finally, comparing the lucid and nonlucid dreams of gamers, it was concluded that lucidity in gamers’ dreams emphasized the already generally positive dream experience of being lucid in sleep, including enhanced aggression that facilitated the sense of empowerment (also typical of video game playing). Not only is there some indication of more lucidity in gamers’ dreams, but that lucidity seems to be further enhanced by the gaming experience.
- ItemA discussion between Charles Tart and Lucidity Letter editor, Jayne Gackenbach, examining similarities between dream lucidity, witnessing and self-remembering(1988) Tart, Charles; Gackenbach, JayneGackenbach: In a recent review of your book Waking Up, John Wren-Lewis said it was very relevant to those interested in lucid dreaming. Tart: I was very honored that he would say that it is must reading for people who are into lucid dreams since lucid dreaming is mentioned only once in the book. You see, lucid waking is the topic of greatest interest to me nowadays. Some spiritual traditions use an analogy that we live in a dream. In many dreams, you get pushed around by events. You’re not very smart. You don’t re-member important, relevant knowledge. You’re inconsistent. You don’t call on all your resources. You get in these terrible situations, but then you wake up! Not only does the dream problem disappear, but you’re so much smarter by comparison. Smarter from the point of view of the waking state, right?
- ItemA dream and a painting marking Raven Woman’s death: synchronicities and a Jungian analysis(2016) Gackenbach, JayneYears ago I brought a dream worker, of Central Alberta Cree heritage, to a couple of IASD conferences. Sylvia, Raven Woman, was thrilled to come and talk about her experiences with dreams as ‘dreamer’ for her reserve near Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. I recall at a conference in Santa Cruz, she asked me why some of the people she was meeting were talking heads. At first I was puzzled and asked her what she meant, she said that what she saw was heads that were talking but no bodies. I laughed and realized that she was ‘seeing’ me and my scientist colleagues in terms of our intellects but that there was no body to us. I recall thinking how accurate was her ‘vision’. But I kept grinding numbers and began shortly after that to examine dreams of video game players.
- ItemA dynamical model of the coral-algae competition in a coral reef ecosystem(2020) Bica, Ion; Solomonovich, MarkA coral reef system is a biodiverse ecosystem in which coral is in mutual competitive partnership with algae. The survival of coral in this competition with algae is vital for the well-being of any coral reef ecosystem. In ideal conditions, the coral mass concentration and algae mass concentration are in a stable equilibrium. However, in practice, it is not always the case due to numerous factors of natural and anthropogenic origin. It is not easy to take into account all these factors when studying the question of survival of the reef ecosystem. We propose a dynamical system that describes the competition between coral and algae and contains terms that describe two major features inherent in this competition. The first one is the accelerated growth of algae when the amount of the turf algae exceeds a certain threshold, and it transforms into macroalgae, which grows much faster and has a detrimental effect on the corals. The second feature is associated with the grazing of the herbivory and other marine life on corals and algae. We apply both analytical and numerical techniques to study the system to find out what kind of equilibria such a system may exhibit. The results of our analysis show that although the boost in the growth of algae may devastate the corals, the latter may still survive if the algae are also subject to sufficiently intense grazing.
- ItemA flow-through enzymatic microreactor for the rapid conversion of triacylglycerols into fatty acid ethyl ester and fatty acid methyl ester derivatives for GC analysis(2015) Anuar, Sabiqah Tuan; Mugo, Samuel; Curtis, JonathanA flow-through enzymatic microreactor for the rapid conversion of triacylglycerols (TAG) into fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) or fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) derivatives was developed. The microreactor was a porous silica monolith fabricated within a 320 μm ID fused silica capillary with lipase from Candida antarctica immobilized onto the large surface area of the monolith. The microreactor was used for the room temperature ethanolysis of TAG from edible oils including canola, sesame, soybean and refined-bleached-deodorized palm oil. GC/MS-NCI and GC/FID were used to prove the identification of the FAEE and FAME products. The microreactor completely transformed the starting oils into FAEEs or FAMEs, without the use of any reagents other than alcohol, in quantities suitable for GC analysis. The prototype microreactors were reusable >5 times with ethanol and 2 times with methanol. The FAEE products obtained using the microreactor were similar to those produced using commercial Novozyme 435 enzyme beads as well as by catalysis with ethanolic H2SO4.
- ItemA four-stage approach to re-associating fragmented and commingled human remains(2021) Bourgeois, Rebecca L.; Bazaliiskii, Vladimir I.; McKenzie, Hugh; Clark, Terence N.; Lieverse, Angela R.Bioarchaeological and forensic anthropological methods are limited in their ability to re-associate human skeletal remains that have been both fragmented and commingled. Although many methods for individualizing commingled remains exist, they are rendered ineffective when the level of fragmentation is high. In these contexts, human remains are often approached similarly to faunal assemblages, regarded as sets of fragmented elements rather than as groups of fragments representing an individual. This paper introduces a new, four-stage approach to identifying discrete individuals from unintentionally fragmented and commingled human remains and salvaging information from highly disturbed cemetery contexts. These stages include documentation, grouping, analysis, and evaluation, each incorporating multiple methods so as to be applicable to a wide variety of assemblages or data availability. Through this process, quantitative analyses are used to evaluate qualitative groupings. This method is applicable to skeletal collections of varying levels of preservation. To demonstrate its application, we apply this methodology to an Early Neolithic (7560–6660 HPD cal. BP) hunter-gatherer cemetery, Moty-Novaia Shamanka (MNS), located in the Cis-Baikal region of Siberia, Russia. MNS was destroyed in the 1990s for urban development and flood management, leaving the ancient skeletal remains severely fragmented and commingled. Our results identified five discrete individual groupings from 1245 human bone fragments, and eight further groupings of related fragments. Through a process of elimination, it was determined that these groupings represented at least seven distinct people. The methodological approach of this study challenges our perception of the informative value of fragmented and commingled human remains and provides an example of how future studies could approach individualization in situations where most context has been lost.
- ItemA game-theoretic analysis of Canada’s entry for LNG exports in the Asia-Pacific market(2023) Ghosh, Subhadip; Islam, ShahidulThe import demand for energy resources, including liquefied natural gas (LNG), has been steadily increasing in the Asia-Pacific region. Australia, the Middle East (Qatar), the Russian Federation, and the U.S. are the major players who compete strategically to capture this ever-growing market for LNG. The objective of this paper is to examine the potential for Canada’s entry into this market as another LNG exporter and what impact that can have on the existing suppliers. Using a game-theoretic LNG export competition model, we explore the conditions under which Canada can make a profitable entry. We also investigate the effect of Canada’s entry on the profitability of the four incumbent exporters. Employing a multi-leader Stackelberg model, we found that Canada’s entry could be a Pareto superior outcome under certain conditions because it benefits all competing firms and consumers. Further, Canada’s entry into the LNG export market always helps the low-cost incumbent firms by increasing their output and profit. However, the high-cost incumbent firms’ output falls, while their profit may increase or decrease depending on the unit cost and market size parameters. With differential export costs between Canada and the U.S., the latter has an incentive to act strategically to affect the entrance of the former.