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    Teaching information flow in supply chains: a role-playing game using TagScan
    (2024) Wang, Xiaojia; Enstroem, Rickard
    Information flow is one of the three main flows of supply chains. It is an abstract concept that can be challenging for students to grasp in its entirety. This article describes a role-playing game for teaching the topic of information flow in an undergraduate supply chain management course. The game allows students to simulate receiving and fulfilling customer orders by playing five roles within a manufacturing company. Students use TagScan, an augmented reality barcoding and logistics system launched by a technology company in western Canada, to track information throughout the game. Pre- and postsurvey results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed game in helping students visualize abstract course concepts and understand the types of information being tracked, the available information transmission technology, and the dynamics of information flow in a supply chain. Students were actively engaged in this in-class activity and responded positively to the learning-by-gaming experience.
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    Enterprise education in undergraduate business programmes advances students' negotiating competence and self-confidence
    (2024) Enstroem, Rickard; Benson, Lyle
    Purpose Business graduates’ enterprising capability augments their work readiness, transforming them into professionals capable of driving successful outcomes. At the core lie self-confidence and negotiating competence. However, embedding enterprise education and developing assessments to evidence learning is challenging. This study aims to offer a blueprint for establishing enterprise learning in the classroom and investigating the effectiveness of cultivating negotiating competence and self-confidence. Design/methodology/approach Modelled on Kolb’s experiential learning cycle, students engage in in-class and real-life negotiations, assessing self-confidence using a scale founded in Bandura’s self-efficacy theory. Open-ended reflections are also submitted. Quantitative data is analysed through multiple linear regression, while quantitative and qualitative data triangulation substantiates enterprise learning in negotiating competence and self-confidence. Findings Students’ reflections show that low self-confidence poses an initial barrier in negotiations, overcome with successive engagements. Quantitative analysis uncovers response-shift biases, with female and male students overestimating initial self-confidence levels. The gender and difference score type interaction reveals a more pronounced bias among female students starting from a lower baseline than male students, implying a more substantial self-confidence improvement for female students. These findings challenge traditional assumptions about gender differences in negotiations and emphasize the need for nuanced perspectives. Originality/value Enterprising capability is pivotal for business professionals. This study highlights the advancement of negotiating competence and self-confidence. It contributes uniquely to the development of enterprise education pedagogy. Focusing on nuanced gender differences challenges prevailing assumptions, providing a perspective to the discourse on negotiating competence and self-confidence in management training.
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    Striking gold: navigating the education massification maze for work readiness
    (2024) Enstroem, Rickard; Schmaltz, Rodney
    Purpose This study investigates the impact of large-scale teaching in higher education on students’ preparedness for the workforce within the context of evolving labour market demands, the expansion of higher education and the application of high-impact teaching strategies. It synthesizes perspectives on employer work readiness, the challenges and opportunities of large-scale teaching and strategies for fostering a dynamic academia-industry feedback loop. This multifaceted approach ensures the relevance of curricula and graduates’ preparedness while addressing the skills gap through practical recommendations for aligning teaching methodologies with employer expectations. Design/methodology/approach The research methodically examines the multifaceted challenges and opportunities inherent in large-scale teaching. It focuses on sustaining student engagement, maintaining educational quality, personalizing learning experiences and cultivating essential soft skills in extensive student cohorts. Findings This study highlights the critical role of transversal skills in work readiness. It also uncovers that despite its challenges, large-scale teaching presents unique opportunities. The diversity of large student groups mirrors modern workplace complexities, and technological tools aid in personalizing learning experiences. Approaches like peer networking, innovative teaching methods, real-world simulations and collaborative resource utilization enrich education. The importance of experiential learning for augmenting large-scale teaching in honing soft skills is emphasized. Originality/value This manuscript contributes to the discourse on large-scale teaching, aligning it with employer expectations and the dynamic requirements of the job market. It offers a nuanced perspective on the challenges and opportunities this educational approach presents, providing insights for crafting engaging and effective learning experiences in large cohorts. The study uniquely integrates experiential learning, co-creation in education and industry-academia feedback loops, underscoring their importance in enhancing student work readiness in large-scale teaching.
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    Canadian agriculture technology adoption
    (2024) Easher, Tahmid Huq; Enstroem, Rickard; Griffin, Terry; Nilsson, Tomas
    Objectives Statistics Canada administers the Agricultural Census every 5 years, and this paper presents unsuppressed data from the 2016 and 2021 Census. The data set encompasses detailed information on farm types, sizes, technology choices, and a demographic profile of farm operators from the 2021 Census. Data on farm characteristics and operator demographics is crucial for understanding innovation in agriculture and formulating evidence-based policies. Data description The data sets cover the two most recent agriculture censuses of 2016 and 2021, presenting data on the number of farmers by region, farm type, size, and the adoption of technologies. Additionally, a third data set lists the number of farm operators by age and sex. The census questionnaire inquires about using different technologies, varying the types across the two census periods. Notably, there is no data suppression in these data sets, and they cover all 10 provinces in Canada, excluding the three territories. Farm types are categorized based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), and farm size is measured in acres.
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    Standalone closed-form formula for the throughput rate of asynchronous normally distributed serial flow lines
    (2017) Aboutaleb, Adam; Kang, Parminder Singh; Hamzaoui, Raouf; Duffy, Alistair
    Flexible flow lines use flexible entities to generate multiple product variants using the same serial routing. Evaluative analytical models for the throughput rate of asynchronous serial flow lines were mainly developed for the Markovian case where processing times, arrival rates, failure rates and setup times follow deterministic, exponential or phase-type distributions. Models for non-Markovian processes are non-standalone and were obtained by extending the exponential case. This limits the suitability of existing models for real-world human-dependent flow lines, which are typically represented by a normal distribution. We exploit data mining and simulation modelling to derive a standalone closed-form formula for the throughput rate of normally distributed asynchronous human-dependent serial flow lines. Our formula gave steady results that are more accurate than those obtained with existing models across a wide range of discrete data sets.
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    Information technology investment and working capital management efficiency: evidence from India survey data
    (2022) Gill, Amarjit; Kang, Parminder Singh; Amiraslany, Afshin
    Purpose This study aims to test the relationship between information technology investment (IT_INVEST) and working capital management (WCM) efficiency. Design/methodology/approach This study utilized a survey research design to collect data from micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) owners in India. Findings Empirical results show that perceived IT_INVEST plays a role in improving WCM efficiency by decreasing the inventory holding period and reducing the cash conversion cycle (CCC) in India. A three-stage least square model (3SLS) shows that IT_INVEST decreases CCC directly and indirectly through the inventory holding period, accounts receivable period and accounts payable period. The empirical analysis also shows that IT_INVEST decreases the inventory holding period and CCC by 16.80% and 26.40%, respectively, for the examined firms. Research limitations/implications If MSMEs' owners perceive a higher level of IT_INVEST, then the owners perceive a higher WCM efficiency and vice versa. Originality/value This study contributes to the literature on the relationship between IT_INVEST and WCM efficiency. This study may encourage further studies of IT investment and WCM efficiency using data from other industries and countries. MSME owners may find empirical results beneficial to improve WCM efficiency. Moreover, financial management consultants may find results helpful to provide consulting services.
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    An option-based capacity control mechanism for code-sharing alliances
    (2023) Wang, Xiaojia; Fung, Richard Y. K.
    This study addresses capacity control problems in code-sharing alliances, which deal with the determination of member airlines' booking limits. We propose an innovative option-based capacity control mechanism to overcome the drawback of inflexibility in blocked seat allotment for a two-airline code-sharing alliance. The mechanism incorporates the concept of a straddle, an advanced option strategy in finance, to allow member airlines the flexibility to tackle not only downward but also upward demand variations during the booking process. We design simulation experiments and use a case illustration to show scenarios when the code-sharing alliance can benefit from the proposed mechanism.
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    Strategic analyses of applying an option-based hedging mechanism in parallel airline alliances
    (2023) Wang, Xiaojia; Fung, Richard Y. K.
    The extant literature proposes an option-based hedging mechanism for airlines in a parallel alliance to transfer bumped passengers to their alliance partner’s flight. This paper extends this literature by conducting strategic analyses and developing a two-stage simulation-based algorithm to identify the best strategy for applying the hedging mechanism. Specifically, the best strategy refers to the best number of options for the allied carriers to transact. The authors show that there exists a robust result of the best number of options, and it is obtained under the objective of maximizing alliance-wide revenue. The result of this paper can provide direct guidance to the management of airlines on the best practice of hedging ex-post overbooking risks and matching supply with demand.
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    Continuous process improvement implementation framework using multi-objective genetic algorithms and discrete event simulation
    (2019) Kang, Parminder Singh; Bhatti, Rajbir
    Purpose Continuous process improvement is a hard problem, especially in high variety/low volume environments due to the complex interrelationships between processes. The purpose of this paper is to address the process improvement issues by simultaneously investigating the job sequencing and buffer size optimization problems. Design/methodology/approach This paper proposes a continuous process improvement implementation framework using a modified genetic algorithm (GA) and discrete event simulation to achieve multi-objective optimization. The proposed combinatorial optimization module combines the problem of job sequencing and buffer size optimization under a generic process improvement framework, where lead time and total inventory holding cost are used as two combinatorial optimization objectives. The proposed approach uses the discrete event simulation to mimic the manufacturing environment, the constraints imposed by the real environment and the different levels of variability associated with the resources. Findings Compared to existing evolutionary algorithm-based methods, the proposed framework considers the interrelationship between succeeding and preceding processes and the variability induced by both job sequence and buffer size problems on each other. A computational analysis shows significant improvement by applying the proposed framework. Originality/value Significant body of work exists in the area of continuous process improvement, discrete event simulation and GAs, a little work has been found where GAs and discrete event simulation are used together to implement continuous process improvement as an iterative approach. Also, a modified GA simultaneously addresses the job sequencing and buffer size optimization problems by considering the interrelationships and the effect of variability due to both on each other.
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    Energy demand and the potential role of imported liquefied natural gas (Lng) in Bangladesh
    (2023) Islam, Shahidul; Ghosh, Subhadip; Wang, Youke
    The rapid economic progress of Bangladesh is associated with a swiftly rising demand and energy consumption. Future economic growth will undoubtedly require a proportionate increase in energy availability within affordable prices. Bangladesh is inherently energy-scarce and heavily dependent on imported energy, primarily fossil fuels. Several approaches and strategies were attempted over time to mitigate the energy shortage. Some of them were reasonably successful, while others failed. In this study, we first examine the historical developments of the energy sector in Bangladesh since its independence and then use three approaches--triple exponential smoothing, vector autoregression, and the Cochrane-Orcutt AR(1) process to forecast the energy demand. Data for this study were taken from various sources, including British Petroleum, International Gas Union, International Energy Agency, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, World Bank, Petrobangla, and Energy Information Agency of the United States. As expected, each model predicts an exponential growth of energy demand in Bangladesh. We then explored the possibilities of mitigating such projected energy demand. Various studies show that Bangladesh has some potential for producing energy from renewable sources, i.e., solar, hydro, wind, wave, and others. However, such possibilities are limited, and many are still in their infancy. Although an increase in renewable energy is desirable from an environmental perspective, it alone will not meet Bangladesh's growing energy demand. At least in the short term, Bangladesh must rely on imported fossil energy. Among the fossil energy sources, LNG is by far the cleanest. With the development of technology, liquefaction, transportation, and regasification, LNG production, transportation, and use are becoming less expensive. Progressively more natural gas-producing countries are joining LNG production and export, contributing to the market's competitiveness. Though historically tied to the oil market, LNG markets are becoming more and more independent because of the increasing number of participants from both the demand and supply sides. Given that both its global price and negative impact on the environment are relatively lower than other fossil fuels, imported LNG should be the fuel of choice for Bangladesh. Government policies should focus on both importing LNG and expanding renewable energy resources.
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    Success of the garment industry and its impact on gender equality in Bangladesh
    (2023) Podder, Mohua; Ghosh, Subhadip; Islam, Shahidul
    Bangladesh has been successful in transforming itself from one of the poorest counties in the world to a lower-middle-income country in 50 years. The readymade garment sector has been a major driving force behind its growth and development. It has contributed to higher per-capita income and catalyzed social and economic development, structural transformation, and gender empowerment. Using exploratory data analysis and literature survey, this paper intends to investigate the reasons behind the rapid growth of the readymade garment sector in Bangladesh and its importance in promoting gender equality in Bangladesh.
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    Blockchain for business: understanding the core principles and implications of blockchain technology in a new decentralized world
    (2023) Bilodeau, Victor
    Begins by providing a solid foundation in blockchain technology, elucidating its underlying principles and mechanics. This foundation enables readers to grasp the core concepts, such as decentralization, consensus mechanisms, and cryptography. With this knowledge, readers can appreciate the profound implications of this technology on data security, transparency, and efficiency across various sectors. To provide a broader context for the rise of blockchain, the book delves into the history of money and the evolution of monetary systems. By exploring the development of currencies and their role in shaping human societies, the reader gains a deeper appreciation of the potential impact that blockchain and cryptocurrencies can have on the global economy. This historical perspective is essential to understanding the true value and significance of blockchain’s potential in transforming how we conduct business and exchange value. The book’s final section is dedicated to cryptocurrencies, the most well-known application of blockchain technology. It covers the inception of Bitcoin, the first successful cryptocurrency, and discusses the growth of the cryptocurrency ecosystem, including various types of digital currencies, exchanges, wallets, and regulations. This section provides readers with a clear understanding of the opportunities and challenges presented by cryptocurrencies, enabling them to make informed decisions regarding their adoption and integration into business strategies.
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    A model for preventing academic misconduct: evidence from a large-scale intervention
    (2023) Benson, Lyle; Enstroem, Rickard
    It is well known that students intentionally and unintentionally commit academic misconduct, but how can universities prevent academic misconduct and foster a culture of academic integrity? Based on a literature synthesis, an actionable Model for Preventing Academic Misconduct is presented. The model’s basic premise is that students’ voluntary participation in individual courses or academic integrity modules will have far less impact on preventing academic misconduct than required faculty or university-wide programming in core courses. In validating the model, the steps taken by the School of Business at a Canadian university to prevent academic misconduct are examined. Two online tutorials were created and implemented as required modules in the School of Business introductory core courses. Actual academic misconduct incidents recorded by the University from 2016 to 2021, a three-year pre-intervention period and a two-year post-intervention period partly covering the COVID-19 outbreak, are used to gauge the model’s effectiveness in preventing academic misconduct. The findings are discussed through a Social Learning Theory lens: the high-level implementation gives rise to a culture of academic integrity propelled by the establishment of common knowledge.
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    Option contracts for products with seasonal disruption
    (2022) Son, Joong
    This paper studies the effectiveness of implementing option contracts for the procurement of seasonal products, subject to short selling season, demand uncertainty, and supply-side disruption. The research intends to show how profitability and product availability can be enhanced both locally and globally by combining different supply contracts such as fixed price contracts and option contracts. In particular, the paper aims to identify business settings with respect to disruption parameters, demand uncertainties, and option contract pricing under which the supply contract could improve the overall supply chain performance.
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    An analysis of patterns of retail gas price variations in Canada
    (2022) Ghosh, Subhadip; Islam, Shahidul
    This paper intends to study the patterns in retail gasoline price variations in Canada. In particular, we examine the following questions. First, we determine whether retail gasoline prices are higher on certain days of the week. Specifically, are the retail prices higher during the weekends than the weekdays in Canada? Second, we investigate specific differences in the retail gasoline prices over various days of the week across different Canadian cities and provinces. Finally, we compare the average retail gasoline prices across different provinces in Canada.
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    A rosè by any other name
    (2022) Podder, Mohua; Gosh, Subhadip
    A remarkable finding on analyzing the wine consumption data since the turn of the century has been the spectacular rise of the popularity of the Rosé wine. In the time period 2002-2018, the worldwide wine consumption of Rosé wine has increased by 20%. It accounted for 10.5% of the total still wine consumption in 2019. Indeed, the US has been one of the drivers of this rise in the popularity of the Rosé wine, with an increase of 118% in rose wine volume from 2015 to 2020. This paper tries to examine the consumer preferences behind this astounding rise in Rosé wine, using wine rating data from the Wine Spectator website. Comparing consumer ratings of similarly priced Rosé wines with some popular wines of other varieties, we obtained some exciting insights using several data visualization and regression techniques.
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    A juggler's manifesto: elevating creativity to stay productive amid uncertainty
    (2023) Enstroem, Rickard; Schmaltz, Rodney
    Purpose The Industry 4.0 environment is characterized by fast data, vertically and horizontally interconnected systems, and human–machine interfaces. In the middle stands the manager, whose sustained performance is critical to the organization's success. Business disturbances—such as supply chain disruptions during the pandemic—can quickly test the manager's resiliency. While creativity and flexibility are critical for success in these situations, these skills are often not promoted directly. This paper will discuss strategies for enhancing managers' creativity and resiliency and give suggestions for improving professional development training and post-secondary business education. Design/methodology/approach A synthesis of the literature in business and psychology provides a foundation for creating a conceptual model incorporating strategies to promote managerial creativity and resiliency. While the model focuses on managerial performance under adverse conditions, the tenets of the model also apply during times of relative stability. Findings Findings based on a synthesis of the literature on creativity in business and psychology provide the foundation for a conceptual model to identify potential elements in training and curriculum design to further managers' creativity and resiliency. This model recommends clear, actionable training and program-level curriculum design suggestions for improved managerial performance. Originality/value This paper identifies a conceptual model to enhance managerial creativity leading to increased resiliency through professional development programs and suggestions for educators in post-secondary business education. This model provides tools for managers to deal with adverse and rapidly changing conditions flexibly, promoting employee productivity and satisfaction.
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    A game-theoretic analysis of Canada’s entry for LNG exports in the Asia-Pacific market
    (2023) Ghosh, Subhadip; Islam, Shahidul
    The import demand for energy resources, including liquefied natural gas (LNG), has been steadily increasing in the Asia-Pacific region. Australia, the Middle East (Qatar), the Russian Federation, and the U.S. are the major players who compete strategically to capture this ever-growing market for LNG. The objective of this paper is to examine the potential for Canada’s entry into this market as another LNG exporter and what impact that can have on the existing suppliers. Using a game-theoretic LNG export competition model, we explore the conditions under which Canada can make a profitable entry. We also investigate the effect of Canada’s entry on the profitability of the four incumbent exporters. Employing a multi-leader Stackelberg model, we found that Canada’s entry could be a Pareto superior outcome under certain conditions because it benefits all competing firms and consumers. Further, Canada’s entry into the LNG export market always helps the low-cost incumbent firms by increasing their output and profit. However, the high-cost incumbent firms’ output falls, while their profit may increase or decrease depending on the unit cost and market size parameters. With differential export costs between Canada and the U.S., the latter has an incentive to act strategically to affect the entrance of the former.
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    Energy infrastructure in India: challenges and opportunities
    (2022) Majumder, Rajarshi; Ghosh, Subhadip; Chatterjee, Bidisha
    Productivity is the new buzzword for economic growth in the era of globalization, as countries with higher productivity levels enjoy a comparative advantage over their competitors. Infrastructure is critical in this quest for higher productivity, growth, and development, and energy infrastructure is one of its crucial components. Longterm planning for ensuring that energy demands are met has become an integral part of policy-making, as energy infrastructure requires a huge lump sum investment and has a long gestation period. So, capacity augmentation and installing energy infrastructure in its physical form (refineries, power plants, pipelines, distribution lines, and so on) have to be planned and executed early. In this paper, we first narrate India’s energy demand/consumption trends over the last four decades and then try to forecast future energy demands and related energy infrastructure needs over the medium to long run period of 20 years from 2020 to 2040. Total Primary Energy Consumption is expected to be more than double the current level, and electricity demand to treble. As a result, coal production, oil refining, gas importing and distribution, electricity generation, and transmission & distribution capacities all have to grow substantially. Thus, we are looking at massive infrastructure requirements for the energy production sector. Finally, policy implications are also discussed.
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    Cash assist or shark loan? In quest of doing well while doing good
    (2022) Taleb, Ali; Ghosh, Subhadip
    Jim Kamal, 24 years, was a socially-conscious entrepreneur at hart. He just completed his undergrad studies in Accounting and was exploring the opportunity of starting a Payday Loan business. While doing market research, he came across various information that made his decision difficult. On the one hand, the opportunity appeared to have great potential for superior return on investment. On the other hand, the industry clearly suffered from a bad image due to what the press and government representatives qualified as unethical commercial practices. This was in contradiction with Kamal's personal values and professional objective - doing good while doing well.