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Department of International Business, Marketing, Strategy and Law

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    Research re(casted): S1E11 - Internationalization with Dr. Fernando Angulo-Ruiz
    (2022) Ekelund, Brittany; Cave, Dylan; Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando
    Today we explore marketing and business through topics including benefit corporations, the internationalization of Indigenous businesses, and keeping your corporate promises! Joining us today is Dr. Fernando Angulo-Ruiz, an associate professor in the department of International Business, Marketing, Strategy & Law at MacEwan University, where he is also a Board of Governors Research Chair. His latest research program focuses on understanding the phenomenon of hybrid businesses, and his body of research also includes research on Indigenous businesses and benefit corporations.
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    The relevance of marketing activities for higher education institutions across developed economies
    (2016) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Cheben, Juraj
    The higher education(HE)sector is experiencing continuous growth (Durvasula et al. 2011) and projections point that potential demand for HE worldwide will expand from 97 million students in 2000 to over 262 million students by 2025 (Bjarnason et al. 2009). One of the noticeable trends in the education sector throughout this growth has been what some have called global marketization (Marginson and van der Wende 2007; Naidoo and Wu 2011). The term "marketization" refers to the facts that as the HE market has become progressively more competitive, many HE institutions (HEI) have started to engage in strategic and design marketing activities with the aim of increasing the number of applicants to their universities (Angulo et al. 2010; Hemsley-Brown and Oplatka 2006).
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    Internationalization of Indigenous businesses: a comparison between new ventures and older firms (interactive paper)
    (2016) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Skudra, Max; Gladu, J. P.
    This research studies the impact of entrepreneur’s characteristics, entrepreneur’s network, firm capabilities, and firm competitive advantages on the internationalization of new and older firms. The context to study this phenomenon is indigenous entrepreneurship. Indigenous peoples are commonly among the most vulnerable segments of society. From this perspective, indigenous people might perceive the context as a liability. However, the indigenous context provides entrepreneurs with culture-specific values and skills that can be leveraged in the marketplace. The current study adds the notion of entrepreneur’s identity rooted in culture-specific values as a source of competitive advantage that can aid in internationalization. This study uses a unique dataset of Aboriginal businesses in Canada developed by the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business. The dataset includes data collected in the 2011 Aboriginal Business Survey, which is based on a telephone survey conducted with a representative sample of 1,095 self-identified First Nations, Métis and Inuit small business owners.
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    Entrepreneurship as change-creation: testing the emancipation perspective and its outcomes
    (2017) Pergelova, Albena; Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Dana, Léo-Paul
    This paper contributes to the emerging wave of critical entrepreneurship studies by building on recent conceptual advancements that view entrepreneuring as emancipation, i.e., entrepreneurial activities as generators of change and pursuit of liberation from perceived constraints. Using a representative dataset of Canadian Aboriginal SMEs, the paper investigates how the type of “freedom” / liberation entrepreneurs pursue affects the way they enact several aspects of their businesses and the performance outcomes achieved. Findings suggest that distinctly different business models, practices, and outcomes characterize entrepreneurs looking for freedom for themselves vs. the ones looking for change for the social collective of which they are apart.
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    Measuring the efficiency of digital advertising
    (2017) Pergelova, Albena; Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando
    ...this chapter's objective is to synthesize the digital advertising effectiveness/ efficiency literature, propose a model that incorporates a broader set of metrics, including consumer empowerment, and outline a methodological measurement approach that can capture the diversity of inputs and outputs (both consumer and advertiser-controlled) generated as a result of digital advertising campaigns. Current Ways to Measure Digital Advertising Effects In this section, we provide a review of the digital advertising effectiveness literature, organizing it around two themes: advertiser-controlled inputs into the ad campaign and consumer-controlled inputs (Rodgers &Thorson, 2000), with the caveat that the distinction is fluid because of the consumer-advertiser interaction and interdependence in the process (Stewart & Pavlou, 2002). The review is not meant to be exhaustive, but rather is to illustrate the types of inputs into and outcomes from digital advertising campaigns.
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    New frontiers in the internationalization of businesses : empirical evidence from Indigenous businesses in Canada
    (2020) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando
    New Frontiers in the Internationalization of Businesses: Empirical Evidence from Indigenous Businesses in Canada highlights the impact of international expansion as a potential pathway to address the challenges of poverty and vulnerability, and provide relevant new knowledge on the factors that support successful international expansion of Indigenous businesses. This book examines how entrepreneur's identity and cultural values, network ties, motivations, and resources and capabilities facilitate or hinder the internationalization of Indigenous businesses. This book also investigates the economic and non-economic outcomes of internationalization. Most interestingly, this book answers the question of what is so new about the internationalization of Indigenous businesses by comparing this context to mainstream (non-Indigenous) businesses. The book also delves in the phenomena related to home-based businesses, service industries, and specific ethnic groups. This book has implications for vulnerable populations, especially those more than 370 million Indigenous people spread across 70 countries worldwide. Studying those Indigenous businesses that decide to pursue international opportunities and how they become successful in international markets is a timely and novel area of research. Understanding this context contributes to current debates in international business.
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    The influence of entrepreneurs’ culture and ethnicity on firms’ degree of hybridity
    (2023) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Muralidharan, Etayankara
    Hybrid businesses that combine profit and social objectives at their core play an important role in their communities. In this article, we use insights from paradox theory to examine the influence of entrepreneurs’ cultural value orientations and ethnicity on distinct forms of hybrid businesses. We use a unique random sample of international small- and medium-sized privately owned businesses in Canada. After controlling for alternative explanations and using propensity scores to match the samples of Indigenous and non-Indigenous entrepreneurs, we consistently find that entrepreneurs’ self-expression values and Indigenous ethnicity are positively associated with a higher degree of hybridity in the businesses they start. Our findings contribute to the conversations on the micro-foundations of organizational paradox and to the literature on the factors that influence different hybrid organizational forms. Besides, our findings also add to the literature that examines hybridity in the context of internationalized businesses. The rationality and culture of the entrepreneur affect organizational paradox. Entrepreneurs with self-expressive values and identified with an Indigenous ethnicity have higher proclivities to form ideal hybrids and embrace paradoxical organizational forms.
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    Chapter 6: An emotional intelligence perspective on Gross Psychological Aptitude and its relation to entrepreneurship behavior: insights from high school students
    (2022) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, Etayankara; Jha, Krishna
    In this book chapter we propose the idea of transcribing the Gross Psychological Aptitude (GPA) of high school students as a measure and assessment of their emotional intelligence (EI), which is one's competency/ability to identify, evaluate, control and express emotions. Cultivating and monitoring EI early would set high schoolers for success in schools, universities and eventually in their careers, including as entrepreneurs. Additionally, based on their assessment of emotional competencies, one can predict and match their ideal areas-of-study where they are most likely to succeed (such as majors, colleges, departments, etc.). One such matched area could be entrepreneurship. Using a questionnaire based on Petrides and Furham's Trait EQ/EI dimensions, our survey of 121 high schoolers from across ten states in the US provides insights into the links between several facets of their EI (such as self-control, motivations, social skills, empathy, etc.) and new venture creation behaviors, suggesting that emotional competencies are associated with entrepreneurship.
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    Contextualizing emotional intelligence for commercial and social entrepreneurship
    (2023) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, Etayankara
    Rendering four emotional competencies of trait emotional intelligence (EI) model, well-being, self-control, adaptability, and sociability as culturally contextualized societal psychological capital, we explain their cross-cultural comparative influences on individual social and commercial entrepreneurship (SE and CE). We use psychological capital theory to establish EI as one’s emotional competencies. Societies with augmented supply of individuals with such competencies will have higher reserves of positive psychological capital making EI as culturally contextualized that shape individual CE and SE. Using 30,924 responses from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey of 24 countries and supplementing data from World Values Survey (WVS), our multilevel analyses show that societal eudaimonic well-being and sociability increase likelihood of individual SE more than CE whereas societal hedonic well-being, adaptability, and self-control increase that of CE more than SE, implying that culturally contextualized EI shapes CE and SE differently across nations. Our findings offer policy implications for country-specific programs that taps into societal emotional competencies for entrepreneurship pedagogy, sustainability goals and EI-based training for entrepreneurs.
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    No filter: navigating well-being in troubled times as social media influencers
    (2023) Levesque, Nataly; Hachey, Alysha; Pergelova, Albena
    Social media influencers have the ability to impact the behaviours and attitudes of others (i.e., their followers), affecting people’s feelings of connectedness, and well-being. This has become particularly apparent during troubled times such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which has highlighted the importance of relationships and social interactions for people’s well-being. However, less attention has been paid to influencers’ own well-being in a monetised attention economy, which imposes tensions between the desire for authenticity and the self-presentations of influencers in online interactions. Using in-depth interviews and netnography as methodology, in this study we examine how the decision to engage with the topic of COVID-19 on social media impacted influencers’ well-being during the pandemic. We build on self-determination theory to reveal how the contentious nature of the subject led to internal struggles of influencers’ self-presentation, and elucidate how influencers navigated the boundaries of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in a quest for well-being.
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    #Sponsored: understanding the boundary conditions of resistance coping activation in influencer advertising
    (2023) Pergelova, Albena; Hachey, Alysha
    Influencer advertising has sparked controversy among both consumers and regulators, in that influencer advertising’s very effectiveness is built on deceit, since consumers are often unaware of the persuasive intent. Empirical evidence on influencer advertising is built largely on the premise that disclosure will activate consumers’ reactance since consumers will recognize the persuasive intent. Using a mixed-method approach (focus groups and survey), we contribute to the growing body of research on influencer advertising by demonstrating the role of three important boundary conditions in the relationship between knowledge of persuasive intent and activation of “resistant coping” mechanisms: trust, overconfidence, and transparency. Based on our focus group results, we propose that two groups of outcome variables need further research attention: (1) consumers’ moral and affective advertising literacy and (2) other individual-level psychological outcomes, such as cognitive dissonance and reduced control over one’s time and productivity. In our further empirical test, we focus more specifically on perceptions of moral appropriateness of advertising, and we illustrate its importance for understanding how influencer advertising works.
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    The promise and limits of self-employment as a path to fulfillment and well-being at work
    (2023) Pergelova, Albena; Zwiegelaar, Jeremy; Beck, Shelley
    Self-employment has been suggested as a way to increase well-being, and a body of research has found evidence that self-employed individuals achieve higher levels of well-being compared to wage employees. However, while there is a general positive association between self-employment and well-being, for specific groups of self-employed/entrepreneurs (e.g., women entrepreneurs, immigrant entrepreneurs, etc.) the relationship between being independent and achieving fulfillment, personal growth and wellness through their work is complex and multifaceted. This is due to structural limits, societal norms, and contextual limitations that can impede their ability to achieve meaningful work and well-being while being self-employed. This chapter reviews both the promise and the limits of self-employment as a path to well-being for the self-employed with a particular focus on women entrepreneurs and immigrant entrepreneurs.
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    Treat yourself: food delivery apps and the interplay between justification for use and food well-being
    (2023) Capito, Sabrina; Pergelova, Albena
    This study examines the relationship between justification for use and well-being in respect to mobile food delivery apps (FDA). Adopting an interpretivist qualitative approach, the study offers contributions to the FDA and food well-being literature by uncovering four groups of licensing effects that consumers use in justifying FDA use. Those licensing effects can have either positive or negative influence on consumers' wellbeing depending on the degree to which consumers engage in self-regulation, awareness, and conscious managing of their relationship with food. The study also unravels the importance of dealing with the tensions between FDA use and well-being by shedding light on feelings of guilt and financial anxiety related to FDA use.
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    Funding marketing resources and capabilities during a recession: An empirical examination of top corporate advertisers
    (2022) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Donthu, Naveen; Prior, Diego; Rialp-Criado, Josep
    We ask whether the funding behaviour of companies is different during a recession. Specifically, we study whether firms fund marketing resources and capabilities with internal or external financing during a recession, and under which conditions of strategic financial flexibility debt might be used to fund marketing resources and capabilities in recessions.
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    Age-related bias and artificial intelligence: a scoping review
    (2023) Chu, Charlene H.; Donato-Woodger, Simon; Khan, Shehroz; Nyrup, Rune; Leslie, Kathleen; Lyn, Alexandra; Shi, Tianyu; Bianchi, Andria; Rahimi, Samira Abbasgholizadeh; Grenier, Amanda
    There are widespread concerns about bias and discriminatory output related to artificial intelligence (AI), which may propagate social biases and disparities. Digital ageism refers to ageism reflected design, development, and implementation of AI systems and technologies and its resultant data. Currently, the prevalence of digital ageism and the sources of AI bias are unknown. A scoping review informed by the Arksey and O’Malley methodology was undertaken to explore age-related bias in AI systems, identify how AI systems encode, produce, or reinforce age-related bias, what is known about digital ageism, and the social, ethical and legal implications of age-related bias. A comprehensive search strategy that included five electronic bases and grey literature sources including legal sources was conducted. A framework of machine learning biases spanning from data to user by Mehrabi et al. is used to present the findings (Mehrabi et al. 2021). The academic search resulted in 7595 articles that were screened according to the inclusion criteria, of which 307 were included for full-text screening, and 49 were included in this review. The grey literature search resulted in 2639 documents screened, of which 235 were included for full text screening, and 25 were found to be relevant to the research questions pertaining to age and AI. As a result, a total of 74 documents were included in this review. The results show that the most common AI applications that intersected with age were age recognition and facial recognition systems. The most frequent machine learning algorithms used were convolutional neural networks and support vector machines. Bias was most frequently introduced in the early ‘data to algorithm’ phase in machine learning and the ‘algorithm to user’ phase specifically with representation bias (n = 33) and evaluation bias (n = 29), respectively (Mehrabi et al. 2021). The review concludes with a discussion of the ethical implications for the field of AI and recommendations for future research.
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    Ageism and artificial intelligence: protocol for a scoping review
    (2022) Chu, Charlene H.; Leslie, Kathleen; Shi, Jiamin; Nyrup, Rune; Bianchi, Andria; Khan, Shehroz; Rahimi, Samira Abbasgholizadeh; Lyn, Alexandra; Grenier, Amanda
    Artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a major driver of technological development in the 21st century, yet little attention has been paid to algorithmic biases toward older adults. This paper documents the search strategy and process for a scoping review exploring how age-related bias is encoded or amplified in AI systems as well as the corresponding legal and ethical implications.
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    Digital ageism: challenges and opportunities in artificial intelligence for older adults
    (2022) Chu, Charlene H.; Nyrup, Rune; Leslie, Kathleen; Shi, Jiamin; Bianchi, Andria; Lyn, Alexandra; McNicholl, Molly; Khan, Shehroz; Rahimi, Samira; Grenier, Amanda
    Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning are changing our world through their impact on sectors including health care, education, employment, finance, and law. AI systems are developed using data that reflect the implicit and explicit biases of society, and there are significant concerns about how the predictive models in AI systems amplify inequity, privilege, and power in society. The widespread applications of AI have led to mainstream discourse about how AI systems are perpetuating racism, sexism, and classism; yet, concerns about ageism have been largely absent in the AI bias literature. Given the globally aging population and proliferation of AI, there is a need to critically examine the presence of age-related bias in AI systems. This forum article discusses ageism in AI systems and introduces a conceptual model that outlines intersecting pathways of technology development that can produce and reinforce digital ageism in AI systems. We also describe the broader ethical and legal implications and considerations for future directions in digital ageism research to advance knowledge in the field and deepen our understanding of how ageism in AI is fostered by broader cycles of injustice.
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    Seven years of accessible justice: a critical assessment of Hryniak v. Mauldin’s culture shift
    (2022) White, Robert McKay
    In 2014, the Supreme Court of Canada sought to address the inaccessibility of public adjudication for “ordinary Canadians” by introducing a culture shift to civil litigation. This culture shift required participants in the civil justice system to stop viewing trial as the default adjudication method and expand use of summary judgment. In this article, I critically evaluate the Supreme Court’s reasoning for the culture shift from a jurisprudential perspective and quantitatively evaluate the endeavour’s success. I find that Alberta courts have misapplied the culture shift contrary to the Supreme Court’s intentions, that the culture shift is being implemented only on a limited basis, that summary judgment is no more accessible for ordinary Canadians, and that fairness and justice are not being preserved. I provide recommendations for alternate methods to address the accessibility problem.
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    Social inequities and the manifestation of microaggression for First Nations students in the educational system in Canada and the role of transformational leadership
    (2021) Roache, Darcia; Thomson, Stanley Bruce; Marshall, Jason
    This chapter explores through the context of transformational leadership, social justice and the inequities which lead to microaggressions towards First Nations students in the educational system in Canada. The chapter argues that acts of microaggression are pervasive in the Canadian education system and only serve to thwart opportunities for economic and social advancement of First Nations people. As such, the education of First Nations students’ needs to be approached through the lens of social justice. In order for social justice to be effective, it requires education leaders who are open, willing to facilitate change, and encourage those that they lead to strive for higher ideals. The chapter contends that transformational leadership and social justice approaches to education are well suited to enact change at the individual, group, and community levels in First Nations education and thwart the practice of microaggression toward this group within educational settings.
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    Effectiveness of human resource management practices in developing countries
    (2021) Thomson, Stanley Bruce; Ouedraogo, Noufou; Horbay, Matthew; Khan, Mohammad Ashiqur Rahman
    Dunning (2006) asserted that international business research focused heavily on the physical assets of organizations and nations, thus neglecting the human environment of organizations and nations. Research has shown “the most important driver for economic advancement is knowledge” and is drawn from the human environment (Zhu et al., 2011, p. 312). The human environment is defined as the “human assets (i.e. creativity leading to innovation; experience, skills and knowledge of employees) and the skills and abilities those assets possess within a given location” (Zhu et al., 2011, p. 312).Thus, how an organization, including government, manages its human resources (HR), drawn from the human environment in which it operates, will significantly impact success or failure (Barney, 2001; Kong & Thomson, 2009).We contend that although there has been a great deal of research on human resource management (HRM) as a competitive advantage for firms, there has been little work done on the analysis of HRM practices in government and its influence on a nation’s competitive advantage. In a qualitative study of a developing nation in the Caribbean we interviewed 12 senior level employees. Our analysis revealed that little attention was paid to HRM, which resulted in the ineffectiveness of the application of government policies. The data revealed that issues started with the recruitment and selection processes. This paper focuses on the recruitment and selection processes utilized by government agencies that cause institutional voids which lead to the failure to utilize public service employees as a source of competitive advantage.