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Department of International Business, Marketing, Strategy and Law

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    Research recast(ed): S2E10 - Consumer behavior, black toilet paper, and the concept of weirdness with Dr. Claire Deng
    (2023) Miskiman, Megan; Schabert, Reinette; Deng, Quian (Claire)
    In today’s episode, assistant professor of marketing here at MacEwan University - Dr. Claire Deng - discusses her research in consumer behaviour, the concept of weirdness, and the importance of market research.
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    Research recast(ed): S3E7 - Bringing environmental and social sustainability into the field of business
    (2023) Leschyshyn, Brooklyn; Smadis, Natalie; Chapardar, Hadi
    In this episode, we have a conversation with Dr. Hadi Chapardar regarding his research on environmental and social sustainability in business. We delve into the challenges of bringing together two fields that have evolved with different assumptions, purposes, time horizons, and levels. The discussion centers around the tension between sustainability and change in business, and we explore the concepts of circular economy and resilience in supply chains. Dr. Hadi Chapardar shares his insights into new approaches to economics.
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    Intellectual capital and strategic human resource management in social service non-profit organisations in Australia
    (2006) Kong, Eric; Thomson, Stanley Bruce
    Very little systematic research has focused on the Intellectual Capital (IC) and Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) link in the social service non-profit sector. Using data gathered from Australian Social Service Non-profit Organisations (SSNPOs), this paper fills this gap by building a nascent body of literature that put forth that IC plays a central role in SHRM in SSNPOs. SSNPO executives perceived IC as a tool to capture a complete picture of organisational potential, thus providing the necessary picture to formulate strategy for long-term development. Finally, the paper proposes a new model which illustrates that IC drives SHRM in the social service non-profit sector.
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    E-business law in China: strengths and weaknesses
    (2007) Srivastava, Aashish; Thomson, Stanley Bruce
    With 123 million Internet users, China represents a phenomenal potential market for e‐business. The astounding success of China in attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) can be partially explained by a series of reforms of policies, regulations, and laws. Can the introduction of China's new electronic signatures law produce the same results for e‐business in China? This paper analyses the electronic signatures law as a tool fashioned by Chinese lawmakers to encourage e‐business growth in China as they encouraged FDI. We find that China has created an electronic signature law that mirrors the open, flexible, and ever‐changing e‐environment. The fact that the law is not technology‐specific, but rather technology‐neutral, allowing for technological advances, is one of its strong points. A negative aspect of the law is its lack of a set guideline for identification requirements for purchasers of a reliable electronic signature, more commonly known as a digital signature, from electronic certification service providers. Despite the few negative aspects, the electronic signatures law should encourage the development of e‐business in China.
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    Hybrid human resource management in post-Soviet Kazakhstan
    (2007) Minbaeva, Dana B.; Hutchings, Kate; Thomson, Stanley Bruce
    This paper explores Human Resource Management (HRM) practices in foreign-owned subsidiaries in Kazakhstan and examines the development of HRM and the extent to which practices and policies are reflective of their countries of origin, older-style Soviet and post-Soviet practices, or an emerging Kazakhstan. The discussion is based on findings which utilised a questionnaire-based survey, secondary data and interviews with HR managers. The paper concludes that HRM and employee relations practices utilised are a hybrid of old-style Soviet and Western-based approaches (US and European), and also provided are some implications for theory and managerial practice.
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    Research recast(ed): S2E8 - Give them something, but not too much, with Dr. Murli Muralidharan
    (2022) Ekelund, Brittany; Cave, Dylan; Muralidharan, Etayankara
    Today we are talking with Dr. Etayankara Muralidharan, who you might know as Murli here on campus. We are diving into the world of product recalls, and how companies balance priorities - and sometimes pass the blame - when having to pull products off the shelves. We learn about how the organizational systems studied in product recall research also have implications for other systems in our society, and how our politicians and bureaucrats also play the balancing game when it comes to making big decisions in the public space. If you’re interested in following up with Murli’s work, you can check out this Conversation Canada article, Parents should do research on toy recalls before buying Christmas gifts.
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    Research recast(ed): S1E11 - Internationalization with Dr. Fernando Angulo-Ruiz
    (2022) Ekelund, Brittany; Cave, Dylan; Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando
    Today we explore marketing and business through topics including benefit corporations, the internationalization of Indigenous businesses, and keeping your corporate promises! Joining us today is Dr. Fernando Angulo-Ruiz, an associate professor in the department of International Business, Marketing, Strategy & Law at MacEwan University, where he is also a Board of Governors Research Chair. His latest research program focuses on understanding the phenomenon of hybrid businesses, and his body of research also includes research on Indigenous businesses and benefit corporations.
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    The relevance of marketing activities for higher education institutions across developed economies
    (2016) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Cheben, Juraj
    The higher education(HE)sector is experiencing continuous growth (Durvasula et al. 2011) and projections point that potential demand for HE worldwide will expand from 97 million students in 2000 to over 262 million students by 2025 (Bjarnason et al. 2009). One of the noticeable trends in the education sector throughout this growth has been what some have called global marketization (Marginson and van der Wende 2007; Naidoo and Wu 2011). The term "marketization" refers to the facts that as the HE market has become progressively more competitive, many HE institutions (HEI) have started to engage in strategic and design marketing activities with the aim of increasing the number of applicants to their universities (Angulo et al. 2010; Hemsley-Brown and Oplatka 2006).
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    Internationalization of Indigenous businesses: a comparison between new ventures and older firms (interactive paper)
    (2016) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Skudra, Max; Gladu, J. P.
    This research studies the impact of entrepreneur’s characteristics, entrepreneur’s network, firm capabilities, and firm competitive advantages on the internationalization of new and older firms. The context to study this phenomenon is indigenous entrepreneurship. Indigenous peoples are commonly among the most vulnerable segments of society. From this perspective, indigenous people might perceive the context as a liability. However, the indigenous context provides entrepreneurs with culture-specific values and skills that can be leveraged in the marketplace. The current study adds the notion of entrepreneur’s identity rooted in culture-specific values as a source of competitive advantage that can aid in internationalization. This study uses a unique dataset of Aboriginal businesses in Canada developed by the Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business. The dataset includes data collected in the 2011 Aboriginal Business Survey, which is based on a telephone survey conducted with a representative sample of 1,095 self-identified First Nations, Métis and Inuit small business owners.
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    Entrepreneurship as change-creation: testing the emancipation perspective and its outcomes
    (2017) Pergelova, Albena; Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Dana, Léo-Paul
    This paper contributes to the emerging wave of critical entrepreneurship studies by building on recent conceptual advancements that view entrepreneuring as emancipation, i.e., entrepreneurial activities as generators of change and pursuit of liberation from perceived constraints. Using a representative dataset of Canadian Aboriginal SMEs, the paper investigates how the type of “freedom” / liberation entrepreneurs pursue affects the way they enact several aspects of their businesses and the performance outcomes achieved. Findings suggest that distinctly different business models, practices, and outcomes characterize entrepreneurs looking for freedom for themselves vs. the ones looking for change for the social collective of which they are apart.
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    Measuring the efficiency of digital advertising
    (2017) Pergelova, Albena; Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando
    ...this chapter's objective is to synthesize the digital advertising effectiveness/ efficiency literature, propose a model that incorporates a broader set of metrics, including consumer empowerment, and outline a methodological measurement approach that can capture the diversity of inputs and outputs (both consumer and advertiser-controlled) generated as a result of digital advertising campaigns. Current Ways to Measure Digital Advertising Effects In this section, we provide a review of the digital advertising effectiveness literature, organizing it around two themes: advertiser-controlled inputs into the ad campaign and consumer-controlled inputs (Rodgers &Thorson, 2000), with the caveat that the distinction is fluid because of the consumer-advertiser interaction and interdependence in the process (Stewart & Pavlou, 2002). The review is not meant to be exhaustive, but rather is to illustrate the types of inputs into and outcomes from digital advertising campaigns.
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    New frontiers in the internationalization of businesses : empirical evidence from Indigenous businesses in Canada
    (2020) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando
    New Frontiers in the Internationalization of Businesses: Empirical Evidence from Indigenous Businesses in Canada highlights the impact of international expansion as a potential pathway to address the challenges of poverty and vulnerability, and provide relevant new knowledge on the factors that support successful international expansion of Indigenous businesses. This book examines how entrepreneur's identity and cultural values, network ties, motivations, and resources and capabilities facilitate or hinder the internationalization of Indigenous businesses. This book also investigates the economic and non-economic outcomes of internationalization. Most interestingly, this book answers the question of what is so new about the internationalization of Indigenous businesses by comparing this context to mainstream (non-Indigenous) businesses. The book also delves in the phenomena related to home-based businesses, service industries, and specific ethnic groups. This book has implications for vulnerable populations, especially those more than 370 million Indigenous people spread across 70 countries worldwide. Studying those Indigenous businesses that decide to pursue international opportunities and how they become successful in international markets is a timely and novel area of research. Understanding this context contributes to current debates in international business.
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    The influence of entrepreneurs’ culture and ethnicity on firms’ degree of hybridity
    (2023) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Muralidharan, Etayankara
    Hybrid businesses that combine profit and social objectives at their core play an important role in their communities. In this article, we use insights from paradox theory to examine the influence of entrepreneurs’ cultural value orientations and ethnicity on distinct forms of hybrid businesses. We use a unique random sample of international small- and medium-sized privately owned businesses in Canada. After controlling for alternative explanations and using propensity scores to match the samples of Indigenous and non-Indigenous entrepreneurs, we consistently find that entrepreneurs’ self-expression values and Indigenous ethnicity are positively associated with a higher degree of hybridity in the businesses they start. Our findings contribute to the conversations on the micro-foundations of organizational paradox and to the literature on the factors that influence different hybrid organizational forms. Besides, our findings also add to the literature that examines hybridity in the context of internationalized businesses. The rationality and culture of the entrepreneur affect organizational paradox. Entrepreneurs with self-expressive values and identified with an Indigenous ethnicity have higher proclivities to form ideal hybrids and embrace paradoxical organizational forms.
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    Chapter 6: An emotional intelligence perspective on Gross Psychological Aptitude and its relation to entrepreneurship behavior: insights from high school students
    (2022) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, Etayankara; Jha, Krishna
    In this book chapter we propose the idea of transcribing the Gross Psychological Aptitude (GPA) of high school students as a measure and assessment of their emotional intelligence (EI), which is one's competency/ability to identify, evaluate, control and express emotions. Cultivating and monitoring EI early would set high schoolers for success in schools, universities and eventually in their careers, including as entrepreneurs. Additionally, based on their assessment of emotional competencies, one can predict and match their ideal areas-of-study where they are most likely to succeed (such as majors, colleges, departments, etc.). One such matched area could be entrepreneurship. Using a questionnaire based on Petrides and Furham's Trait EQ/EI dimensions, our survey of 121 high schoolers from across ten states in the US provides insights into the links between several facets of their EI (such as self-control, motivations, social skills, empathy, etc.) and new venture creation behaviors, suggesting that emotional competencies are associated with entrepreneurship.
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    Contextualizing emotional intelligence for commercial and social entrepreneurship
    (2023) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, Etayankara
    Rendering four emotional competencies of trait emotional intelligence (EI) model, well-being, self-control, adaptability, and sociability as culturally contextualized societal psychological capital, we explain their cross-cultural comparative influences on individual social and commercial entrepreneurship (SE and CE). We use psychological capital theory to establish EI as one’s emotional competencies. Societies with augmented supply of individuals with such competencies will have higher reserves of positive psychological capital making EI as culturally contextualized that shape individual CE and SE. Using 30,924 responses from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey of 24 countries and supplementing data from World Values Survey (WVS), our multilevel analyses show that societal eudaimonic well-being and sociability increase likelihood of individual SE more than CE whereas societal hedonic well-being, adaptability, and self-control increase that of CE more than SE, implying that culturally contextualized EI shapes CE and SE differently across nations. Our findings offer policy implications for country-specific programs that taps into societal emotional competencies for entrepreneurship pedagogy, sustainability goals and EI-based training for entrepreneurs.
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    No filter: navigating well-being in troubled times as social media influencers
    (2023) Levesque, Nataly; Hachey, Alysha; Pergelova, Albena
    Social media influencers have the ability to impact the behaviours and attitudes of others (i.e., their followers), affecting people’s feelings of connectedness, and well-being. This has become particularly apparent during troubled times such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which has highlighted the importance of relationships and social interactions for people’s well-being. However, less attention has been paid to influencers’ own well-being in a monetised attention economy, which imposes tensions between the desire for authenticity and the self-presentations of influencers in online interactions. Using in-depth interviews and netnography as methodology, in this study we examine how the decision to engage with the topic of COVID-19 on social media impacted influencers’ well-being during the pandemic. We build on self-determination theory to reveal how the contentious nature of the subject led to internal struggles of influencers’ self-presentation, and elucidate how influencers navigated the boundaries of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in a quest for well-being.
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    #Sponsored: understanding the boundary conditions of resistance coping activation in influencer advertising
    (2023) Pergelova, Albena; Hachey, Alysha
    Influencer advertising has sparked controversy among both consumers and regulators, in that influencer advertising’s very effectiveness is built on deceit, since consumers are often unaware of the persuasive intent. Empirical evidence on influencer advertising is built largely on the premise that disclosure will activate consumers’ reactance since consumers will recognize the persuasive intent. Using a mixed-method approach (focus groups and survey), we contribute to the growing body of research on influencer advertising by demonstrating the role of three important boundary conditions in the relationship between knowledge of persuasive intent and activation of “resistant coping” mechanisms: trust, overconfidence, and transparency. Based on our focus group results, we propose that two groups of outcome variables need further research attention: (1) consumers’ moral and affective advertising literacy and (2) other individual-level psychological outcomes, such as cognitive dissonance and reduced control over one’s time and productivity. In our further empirical test, we focus more specifically on perceptions of moral appropriateness of advertising, and we illustrate its importance for understanding how influencer advertising works.
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    The promise and limits of self-employment as a path to fulfillment and well-being at work
    (2023) Pergelova, Albena; Zwiegelaar, Jeremy; Beck, Shelley
    Self-employment has been suggested as a way to increase well-being, and a body of research has found evidence that self-employed individuals achieve higher levels of well-being compared to wage employees. However, while there is a general positive association between self-employment and well-being, for specific groups of self-employed/entrepreneurs (e.g., women entrepreneurs, immigrant entrepreneurs, etc.) the relationship between being independent and achieving fulfillment, personal growth and wellness through their work is complex and multifaceted. This is due to structural limits, societal norms, and contextual limitations that can impede their ability to achieve meaningful work and well-being while being self-employed. This chapter reviews both the promise and the limits of self-employment as a path to well-being for the self-employed with a particular focus on women entrepreneurs and immigrant entrepreneurs.
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    Treat yourself: food delivery apps and the interplay between justification for use and food well-being
    (2023) Capito, Sabrina; Pergelova, Albena
    This study examines the relationship between justification for use and well-being in respect to mobile food delivery apps (FDA). Adopting an interpretivist qualitative approach, the study offers contributions to the FDA and food well-being literature by uncovering four groups of licensing effects that consumers use in justifying FDA use. Those licensing effects can have either positive or negative influence on consumers' wellbeing depending on the degree to which consumers engage in self-regulation, awareness, and conscious managing of their relationship with food. The study also unravels the importance of dealing with the tensions between FDA use and well-being by shedding light on feelings of guilt and financial anxiety related to FDA use.
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    Funding marketing resources and capabilities during a recession: An empirical examination of top corporate advertisers
    (2022) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Donthu, Naveen; Prior, Diego; Rialp-Criado, Josep
    We ask whether the funding behaviour of companies is different during a recession. Specifically, we study whether firms fund marketing resources and capabilities with internal or external financing during a recession, and under which conditions of strategic financial flexibility debt might be used to fund marketing resources and capabilities in recessions.