Browsing Department of International Business, Marketing, Strategy and Law by Title
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- ItemA cross-country study of marketing effectiveness in high-credence services(2016) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Cheben, Juraj; Angulo-Altamirano, EladioThis research seeks to examine the influence of traditional advertising, Internet marketing, and relational marketing on choice and willingness to recommend across countries with varying levels of the Inglehart–Baker cultural dimensions. In the general model, including four countries, relational, and Internet marketing have a significant and positive effect on choice. In the country-specific models, relational marketing has significant positive effects in Canada, Slovakia, and Peru; traditional advertising only in Peru; and Internet marketing only in Slovakia. None of those activities has an influence on choice in Hungary. Relational marketing and Internet marketing have indirect effects on willingness to recommend through the mediating influence of choice. The study provides evidence of comparative marketing effectiveness in the context of high-credence service across different countries.
- ItemA market segmentation approach for higher education based on rational and emotional factors(2010) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Pergelova, Albena; Rialp, JosepMarket segmentation is an important topic for higher education administrators and researchers. For segmenting the higher education market, we have to understand what factors are important for high school students in selecting a university. Extant literature has probed the importance of rational factors such as teaching staff, campus facilities, and quality of education. Less attention has been devoted to the relevance of emotional factors such as personal values. The aim of this paper is to suggest a segmentation approach based on integrating rational and emotional factors that prospective students value when selecting a university. We gather information from 21 focus groups and develop a survey applied to a sample of high school students. We find six segments characterized by distinct rational and emotional underlying factors that lead to a particular composition for each segment. The factors discussed in this research can be used as a guide for higher education managers to develop segmentation and communication plans.
- ItemA microeconomic approach to foreign policy crisis behaviour(1997) Siddiqui, AsifThis essay is a extension of Kenneth Walt's Theory of International Politics to the study of foreign policy behaviour.
- ItemA model of event-destination image transfer(2014) Deng, Qian; Li, MimiThe aim of this study is to provide a theoretical understanding and empirical examination of the psychological responses of tourists attending a mega-event hosted in a tourism destination. A conceptual framework—the event–destination image transfer model—was developed from an extensive literature review and related theoretical discussion. A survey was conducted in Shanghai during the 2010 Shanghai World Expo to test the model. The findings show that the event image directly and positively affected the destination image, providing empirical support for the image transfer theory. Tourists’ psychological responses—their overall attitude and behavioral intentions toward the destination—were positively and significantly affected by the destination image. However, the direct effect of the event image on tourists’ overall attitude toward the destination was statistically non-significant due to the mediation effect of the destination image.
- ItemA retrospective and prospective analysis of HRM research in Chinese firms: implications and directions for future study(2008) Zhu, Cherrie Jiuhua; Thomson, Stanley Bruce; Cieri, Helen DeBased on an extensive review and analysis of 182 articles published in the field of human resource management that focus on China since its economic reform, this article discusses the major reasons for the growth in this area of research. We identify five major categories spanning research and practice, ownership type, and research method. Further, we examine issues and deficiencies in the research literature. Based on our analysis of each research category, we present a substantial series of research questions and implications for future research on HRM in China.
- ItemAfrican development and global peace: socially responsible investing – the missing link(2014) Siddiqui, AsifTopics to be covered: 1) Millennium Development Goals (MDG’s) for 2015 in Retrospect, 2) Socially Responsibility Investing (SRI) in Africa, 3) Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Africa, 4) The Road to Peace.
- ItemAltering the subaltern: racial formation leading up to post-orientalism(2012) Siddiqui, AsifAgenda: 1. Racial Formation Theory – Michael Omi and Howard Winant; 2. Orientalism – Edward Said; 3. The Question of Palestine – Edward Said; 4. Covering Islam – Edward Said; 5. The Clash of Civilizations – Samuel Huntington; 6. The End of History – Francis Fukuyama; 7. Post-Orientalism – Hamid Dabashi;
- ItemAn empowerment model of youth financial behavior(2015) Angulo-Ruiz, Fernando; Pergelova, AlbenaThe current study examines the antecedents of youth financial behavior. By grounding the conceptual framework on empowerment theory, we argue that in addition to financial knowledge other elements such as intrapersonal (e.g., locus of control and motivation) and interactional elements (e.g., parental financial teaching and behavior) also impact youth financial behavior. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling is used on a data set of youth from Western Canada. The results indicate that external locus of control has the highest total effect on youth financial behavior followed by parental influence and motivation. Findings are validated by performing several robustness checks and multigroup analysis. Organizations trying to influence youth financial behavior should broaden the understanding of empowerment to include personal worldview, motivation, as well as social surroundings.
- ItemAn institutional-level expectancy model of social entrepreneurship motivation(2016) Arthaud-Day, Marne; Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraWe draw on two prevailing theories of entrepreneurial activity - expectancy theory and institutional theory - to develop an integrated model of social entrepreneurship motivation. We pair the three pillars of the institutional environment (cognitive, normative, and regulatory) with the corresponding components of the expectancy model (expectancy [E], valence [V], and instrumentality [I]), and then utilize these theoretical pairings to select context-specific indicators for each environmental dimension. We hypothesize that subjective well-being (cognitive/expectancy), embeddedness values (normative/valence) and regulatory quality (regulatory/instrumentality) jointly predict the individual likelihood of engaging in social entrepreneurship. Based on expectancy theory, we further hypothesize the presence of significant interaction effects between subjective well-being and embeddedness (E x V) and all three country-level predictors together (E x V x I). We test our hypotheses on a sample of 142,449 individual-level responses clustered in 37 countries collected as part of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) survey in 2009. Our results support the premise that institutional environmental configurations have both direct and indirect effects on individual-level motivations to engage in social entrepreneurship.
- ItemAn intellectual capital perspective of human resource strategies and practices(2009) Kong, Eric; Thomson, Stanley BrucePrevious research has investigated the relationships between intellectual capital (IC) and human resource management (HRM). Others have described the link between IC and strategic initiatives in an organization including strategic human resource management (SHRM). However, little systematic work has been done to develop a holistic overview of connections between the three concepts. Through an analysis of the recent IC literature and the literature that discusses IC, SHRM and HRM, this paper argues that not only are the three concepts closely connected, but also IC should play a key role in SHRM processes and HRM practices in organizations. The strategic connections also demonstrate that IC can be conceptualized as a holistic partner to both SHRM and HRM; thus, adding strong support for the need to measure IC accurately. A theoretical framework is proposed to illustrate IC, SHRM and HRM connections. Finally, the paper suggests directions for future research.
- ItemAs Canadian as apple pie: a critique of the OSC's adoption of whistleblowing bounties under Policy 15-601(2019) Wilson, L. DanielEffective whistleblower protection is a matter of increasing concern in the capita! markets, with most industrialized countries having adopted some form of whistleblower protection legislation in the past decade. Internationally, capital markets regulators have debated whether payment of financial incentives to whistleblowers improves overall outcomes. In July 2016, the Ontario Securities Commission (the "OSC") adopted a comprehensive whistleblower program that involved payment of whistleblower "bounties" following the SEC model in the United States. Two other Canadian securities commissions (Quebec and Alberta) have subsequently rejected the OSC model in the design of their own whistleblower protection programs. This article reviews the history and landscape of whistleblower protection in Canada with a focus on the recent OSC initiative that resulted in Policy 15-601. Academic arguments for and against payment of whistleblower bounties are discussed, along with consideration of the trajectory of capital markets regulators outside of Canada and the United States. The article concludes that there is no sufficiently compelling rationale for adoption of whistleblower bounties in the Canadian public markets context. The OSC has adopted the American mode! without proper regard for an evolving consensus in international whistleblower best practices and local Canadian context. Moreover, the OSC's adoption of a whistleblower bounty model leads to a number of other problematic program elements that could have been avoided. A national whistleblower policy implemented by provincial securities regulators without a financial compensation component would be preferable for the Canadian capital markets.
- ItemBelt‐and‐Road Initiative: driving the need to understand intellectual capital in Chinese multinational enterprises(2020) Wei, William Xiaojun; Swallow, Phillip; Kong, Eric; Thomson, Stanley BruceChina's Belt‐and‐Road Initiative (BRI) is one of the most ambitious trade and development projects in history which intends to link Chinese multinational enterprises (CMNEs) to the Asian subcontinent, the Middle East, Africa, and Europe through two trade routes, land and sea. The project involves infrastructure development, human knowledge, and international relations to develop trade relationships. Increased competition along the two routes will see other governments taking initiatives to protect the business community in their nations; thus, adding barriers that must be overcome by CMNEs. The success of CMNEs in the BRI relies on the three components—structural, human, and relational—which are the three components of intellectual capital (IC). Through the use of IC CMNEs can assess their strengths and weaknesses. It will be the understanding of these strengths and weaknesses which will drive the success or failure of CMNEs.
- ItemBull in the china shop: a free speech doctrine for the People’s Republic(2015) Siddiqui, AsifThis essay takes the view that many (if not almost all) laws are made with two thoughts in mind: 1) outline the way that individuals relate to each other; and, 2) suggest a vision for society in the future. Arguably, laws replace the central role of religion in many places. The first part of this essay will outline potential sources that could help in the development of Freedom of Speech law for China. The second will outline a proposed Freedom of Speech doctrine for China. Finally, some of the problems that exist with the proposal will be teased out in the third section since no law is perfect. Given the present situation in China, this doctrine might very well resemble loosening a bull in a china shop. Ultimately, the outcome could be good for both China and humanity.
- ItemCanada-Asia energy technology and services forum : findings report(2014) Roberts, Michael J. D.; Kincaide, Heather; Muralidharan, Etayankara; Sadler, MargaretIn order to address some of the challenges that Canadian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the energy technology and services sector face in accessing opportunities in Asia, MacEwan University School of Business, in association with the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada (APF Canada), hosted the Canada–Asia Energy Technology and Services Forum on April 29, 2014. Held at the City Centre Campus of MacEwan University, Edmonton, the forum brought together Canada and Asia-based energy leaders from industry, government, and academia for a discussion on how small and medium sized Canadian companies can develop Asian markets for their energy technology and services, and manage the risks associated with entering and operating in Asian markets. The forum focused on India and China as markets for energy technology and services, but also included broader discussion of opportunities in other Asian markets.
- ItemCash assist or shark loan? In quest of doing well while doing good(2022) Taleb, Ali; Ghosh, SubhadipJim Kamal, 24 years, was a socially-conscious entrepreneur at hart. He just completed his undergrad studies in Accounting and was exploring the opportunity of starting a Payday Loan business. While doing market research, he came across various information that made his decision difficult. On the one hand, the opportunity appeared to have great potential for superior return on investment. On the other hand, the industry clearly suffered from a bad image due to what the press and government representatives qualified as unethical commercial practices. This was in contradiction with Kamal's personal values and professional objective - doing good while doing well.
- ItemChinese transnational investment in Australia: a case study of insider/outsider relations(2013) Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Nyland, Chris; Thomson, Stanley BruceAgainst the backdrop of a nation where more than a third of the population is concerned about cultural differences threatening societal harmony, we explore community responses to a proposed development by a Chinese transnational company. An alumina refinery was to be built in Utopia, a small coastal town in North Queensland, Australia. Framed within the dimensions of Elias and Scotson’s notion of established and outsider relations, we reveal the complexities of a community that consisted largely of a group of long-term residents (the Established) and a newer group who have lived in the town for periods up to three years (the Entrepreneurs). Together they faced the prospect of another group moving into the community-the Chinese. The concerns of the community related to assimilation, employment and the natural environment revealing cultural issues that are the hallmark of new racism.
- ItemComparing advertising effectiveness in South-American and North-American contexts: testing Hofstede's and Inglehart's cultural dimensions in the higher education sector(2017) Pergelova, Albena; Angulo-Ruiz, FernandoThis research compares the effectiveness of advertising and relational marketing in two countries characterized by varying levels of both Hofstede's and Inglehart's cultural dimensions – Peru (high-power distance, high collectivism, survival and traditional values) and Canada (low-power distance, high individualism, self-expression and secular-rational values). Survey data from a high credence service sector (higher education) in both countries is used for the analysis. The results indicate that advertising and relational marketing have direct effects on choice in Peru, but do not have significant direct effects on choice in Canada. Advertising does, however, affect positively perceptual outcome measures (perceived marketing effectiveness) in Canada. Additionally, we find that advertising and relational marketing have an indirect impact on choice and perceived marketing effectiveness through the mediation of perceived informativeness and influencers in both countries. These results point to the need to account for mechanisms and mediating variables when building theoretical frameworks in cross-country studies.
- ItemConsequences of cross-cultural differences in perceived well-being for entrepreneurship(2021) Pathak, Saurav; Muralidharan, EtayankaraIn this article, we empirically test a theory-based model that delineates the indirect effect of societal-level well-being, through societal-level self-expression values, on individual entrepreneurship. Using 881,636 individual-level responses obtained from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) from 44 countries and supplementing with country-level data from the World Values Survey (WVS), our results from multilevel cross-cultural analyses demonstrate that societal-level well-being - hedonic and eudaimonic - are positively related to societal-level self-expression values, and that self-expression values mediate the relation between both types of well-being and likelihood of individuals engaging in entrepreneurship. Hence, hedonic and eudaimonic well-being are distal whereas self-expression values are more proximal influencers of individual entrepreneurship. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
- ItemConsequences of cultural leadership styles for social entrepreneurship: a theoretical framework(2019) Muralidharan, Etayankara; Pathak, SauravThe purpose of this conceptual article is to understand how the interplay of national-level institutions of culturally endorsed leadership styles, government effectiveness, and societal trust affects individual likelihood to become social entrepreneurs. We present an institutional framework comprising cultural leadership styles (normative institutions), government effectiveness (regulatory institutions), and societal trust (cognitive institutions) to predict individual likelihood of social entrepreneurship. Using the insight of culture–entrepreneurship fit and drawing on institutional configuration perspective we posit that culturally endorsed implicit leadership theories (CLTs) of charismatic and participatory leadership positively impact the likelihood of individuals becoming social entrepreneurs. Further, we posit that this impact is particularly pronounced when a country’s regulatory quality manifested by government effectiveness is supportive of social entrepreneurship and when there exist high levels of societal trust. Research on CLTs and their impact on entrepreneurial behavior is limited. We contribute to comparative entrepreneurship research by introducing a cultural antecedent of social entrepreneurship in CLTs and through a deeper understanding of their interplay with national-level institutions to draw the boundary conditions of our framework.