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    Crossing borders: a narrative inquiry into the experiences of international graduate nursing students
    (2023) Oyelana, Olabisi
    In response to the global needs for nursing faculty, and nurses at leadership and advanced clinical practice roles, aspiring students from different countries come to Canada for their graduate nursing education. The positive reputation and the numerous perceived advantages of the education system are particularly compelling to applicants from many developing countries. However, many international students come from different social, historical, political, cultural, and educational backgrounds that deeply influence their learning experiences in Canada. Working from a space of the inquirer’s personal experience, the aim of this inquiry was to understand the experiences of international graduate nursing students across time, place, and social contexts. The focus was to unravel the two puzzles of this inquiry: What stories across social, historical, political, cultural, and educational borders shaped our identities and ways of knowing? How did our experience in Canada shift our lived stories? Four participants were invited from a Master of Nursing program at a university in Western Canada. Living alongside the participants in a series of conversations for over one year. Multiplicity of borders and identity making, border making, border crossing, and border dwelling were the four sustaining threads that resonated across our narrative accounts. These four threads provided insights into the lived experiences of tensions, the shifting of identities, and the day-to-day challenges that international students face while learning in Canada. Being aware of these experiences and acknowledging them could be a significant stride towards addressing the issues of inequity and exclusion within Canadian graduate nursing education.
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    An evolutionary concept analysis of learner-centered teaching
    (2021) Oyelana, Olabisi; Olson, Joanne; Caine, Vera
    Introduction An increasing need for a paradigm shift from traditional teacher-centered teaching model has led to an adoption of learner-centered teaching (LCT) in nursing education. However, programs aimed at LCT barely integrate its principles within their frame of reference, as there tends to be no explicit or clear operationalized definition. The ambiguity and a lack of consensus not only predisposes nursing faculty to erratic teaching practices but also compromises the validity and trustworthiness of any scholarship associated with LCT. Objective The aim of this review was to clarify the concept of LCT for nursing education research and teaching practice purposes. Design and Methods We used an evolutionary framework to review the literature relevant to LCT. Evolutionary concept analysis is a scientific method of inquiry which focuses on analysis of empirical data to identify the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of a concept. Data Sources A comprehensive and systematic review of empirical and conceptual publications from the disciplines of Nursing, Medicine, and Educational psychology provided the sources for this concept analysis. Results. The key defining attributes of learner-centered teaching identified were autonomy, empowerment, engagement, and collaboration. The key antecedents for LCT were trusting relationship, personal responsibility, mutual respect, and empathy. We identified nine primary consequences and an exemplar of LCT from personal teaching experience and the literature. Conclusions LCT is a highly complex concept with many aspects that make it difficult to provide an authoritative definition. However, we identified key attributes, antecedence, and consequences for an operationalization of LCT in nursing education research and teaching practice.
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    Learner-centred teaching in a non-learner-centred world: an interpretive phenomenological study of the lived experience of clinical nursing faculty
    (2018) Oyelana, Olabisi; Martin, Donna; Scanlan, Judith; Temple, Beverley
    Background With the growing complexities in the contemporary health care system, there is a challenge of preparing nurses for the practice demands. To this end, learner-centred teaching has emerged in many nursing curricula in Canada and evidence indicates its effectiveness in developing the essential practice skills in nursing students. It is important to examine the experience of the clinical faculty members who implement learner-centred teaching, as doing so would provide an insight to the factors that may hinder the implementation of learner-centred teaching in the practice settings. Objective This phenomenological study aimed to address two research questions: what does learner-centred teaching mean to clinical nurse faculty? What is the lived experience of clinical nursing faculty who incorporate learner-centred teaching? Methods Ten clinical nurse faculty members who had at least two years of clinical teaching experience volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview guide and audio recorder. Additional data sources included a demographic survey and a reflective journal. Results Multiple sub-themes emerged from this study from which three significant themes were consolidated: diversity of meanings, facilitators of LCT, and barriers to LCT. However, an overarching theme of “learner-centred teaching in a non-learner-centred world” was coined from participants' accounts of their experiences of barriers in incorporating LCT in the practice settings. Conclusion A collaborative effort between faculty and the stakeholders is paramount to a successful implementation of learner-centred teaching in practice settings.
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    An evolutionary concept analysis of learner-centered teaching
    (2022) Oyelana, Olabisi; Olson, Joanne; Caine, Vera
    Background An increasing emphasis on a paradigm shift from the traditional teacher-centered approach has led to the adoption of learner-centered teaching in many nursing education programs. However, the lack of consensus regarding the meaning warranted an analysis of learner-centered teaching. Objective The objective of this analysis was to clarify the concept of learner-centered teaching for nursing education and research. Design An evolutionary framework was used to perform a comprehensive review of both theoretical and empirical literature relevant to learner-centered teaching. An evolutionary concept analysis is a method of inquiry used to analyze the literature, with the purpose of identifying the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of a concept. Sample and setting Empirical and theoretical literature selected from the fields of education, nursing, and medicine. Methods A comprehensive review and analysis of theoretical and empirical publications from nursing, medicine and education disciplines provided a rich data source for this concept analysis. Results Four defining attributes of learner-centered teaching were identified: autonomy, empowerment, collaboration, and engagement. Four antecedents, three surrogate terms, eight related concepts, and nine primary consequences of learner-centered teaching were also identified. Exemplar cases of learner-centered teaching emerged from personal teaching practice experience and the empirical literature. Conclusions Learner-centered teaching is a complex concept with many aspects conceptualized or operationalized which make it difficult to authoritatively define the concept. However, the features of learner-centered teaching identified in this analysis offered a good basis for the evaluation, application, and further development of the concept in nursing.
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    A critical look at exclusive breastfeeding in Africa: through the lens of diffusion of innovation theory
    (2021) Oyelana, Olabisi; Kamanzi, Joyce; Richter, Solina
    Background Exclusive breastfeeding is a practice widely promoted across many developing countries. Despite all the potential advantages and three decades of promotional efforts, exclusive breastfeeding remains short of expectations with a consistent low rate of practice in sub-Sahara Africa since its inception. Objectives Roger’s diffusion of innovation theory was used to examine innovation attributes affecting the adoption of exclusive breastfeeding in Africa. Methods A critical review exploring evidence on exclusive breastfeeding in Sub-Sahara Africa was conducted. The databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, JSTOR, Google Scholar, and PUBMED were searched and supplemented with additional search of grey literature. Eligible studies were selected and a directed content analysis approach to data extraction was conducted in alignment with the diffusion of innovation theory to facilitate narrative synthesis. Result Articles reviewed were diverse and focused on studies exploring barriers to exclusive breastfeeding in several African countries. Key findings indicate several attributes of exclusive breastfeeding are incompatible with African traditional beliefs and cultural practices. Conclusion The attributes identified in this review are worthy of consideration when promoting exclusive breastfeeding among the African people as these are critical predictors of its adoption. Moreover, the adoption of exclusive breastfeeding requires more of socio-cultural processes rather than technical processes. Extended family members and the grandmothers have significant roles in childcare, and they have a powerful influence on innovation decision-making about exclusive breastfeeding. We recommend that the opinions of these adopters be considered when planning exclusive breastfeeding programs. Exclusive breastfeeding needs to be modified to accommodate African traditional values system.
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    Who will lead nursing into the future?
    (2012) Miller, Kathleen; Cummings, Greta
    Recent research reveals a need for improved leadership capabilities among nurses, from the front-line nurse to those in management capacities. This "op-ed" piece is a discussion arising from the results of a study examining two groups of high school students: one participating in a leadership training program and one not participating. With their responses, these students demonstrated a stereotypical view of the work of nurses and were not interested in pursuing a career in nursing. They also didn't see nursing as a career in which to practise their leadership abilities. We raise questions about our ability to meet the goals of the Canadian Nursing Association as set out in Toward 2020 if we, in the nursing profession, are not successful in attracting students who understand the complexities of nursing practice and have a desire and the ability to help advance the profession in Canada. Recommendations for further research are presented.
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    Indigenous health
    (2023) Foster-Boucher, Caroline
    This book covers the nursing concepts, knowledge, research, and skills that are essential to professional nursing practice in Canada.
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    Client perceptions of healthcare professionals (HCP) who have visible body art: a scoping review
    (2023) Wildeman, Amy; Reisdorfer, Emilene
    Background: In healthcare settings, physical appearance plays a significant role in a patient's first impression of a healthcare professional’s competence, compassion, performance, and quality of care. Given that nurses are an essential part of the patient care team, it is imperative for them and other healthcare providers to recognize what the client’s response might be to their use of personal body art (i.e., tattoos, piercings, and designs using skin as a medium), while still achieving therapeutic relationships with clients. Purpose: This scoping review aims to answer the following question: What is known from the existing literature about the clients' perceptions of healthcare professionals (HCP) who have visible body art, including its possible effects on the patient’s perception of patient care. Methods: Electronic databases of PubMed, Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Scopus were searched to identify studies published until 2022. They were assessed for quality using the Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies (AXIS) tool. The following stages were followed: identifying the research question, identifying relevant studies, study selection, charting the data, and collating, summarizing, and reporting the results. A total of 435 studies published until January 2022 were identified, of which 8 met the inclusion criteria. Implications: Out of eight studies included in this review, six identified that body art is negatively associated with patient care, and two found there is no impact on body art and patient perceptions of care. Conclusion: Results show that clients attribute a higher degree of professionalism to HCP without visible body art. Finally, some studies indicate that female HCP with visible tattoos were perceived as being less professional than their male counterparts. It is essential to understand patient perceptions of healthcare professionals with and without body art and determine if appearances can alter the relationship between patient and provider.
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    Alcohol health warning labels: a rapid review with action recommendations
    (2022) Giesbrecht, Norman; Reisdorfer, Emilene; Rios, Isabelle
    A rapid review of research on health warning labels located on alcohol containers (AWLs) was conducted. Using five search engines (Embase, Medline, Pubmed, Scopus, Psyinfo), 2975 nonduplicate citations were identified between the inception date of the search engine and April 2021. Of those, 382 articles were examined and retrieved. We selected 122 research papers for analysis and narrative information extraction, focusing on population foci, study design, and main outcomes. Research included public opinion studies, surveys of post-AWL implementation, on-line and in-person experiments and real-world quasi-experiments. Many studies focused on the effects of the 1989 United States Alcoholic Beverage Labeling Act on perceptions, intentions and behavior. Others focused on Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, England or Scotland, Italy and France. There was substantial variation in the design of the studies, ranging from small-scale focus groups to on-line surveys with large samples. Over time, evidence has been emerging on label design components, such as large size, combination of text and image, and specific health messaging, that is likely to have some desired impact on knowledge, awareness of risk and even the drinking behavior of those who see the AWLs. This body of evidence provides guidance to policy-makers, and national and regional authorities, and recommendations are offered for discussion and consideration.
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    Stakeholder experiences of a public safety personnel work reintegration program
    (2023) Jones, Chelsea; Spencer, Shaylee; Juby, Brenda; O’Greysik, Elly; Smith-MacDonald, Lorraine; Vincent, Michelle; Brémault-Phillips, Suzette
    Public safety personnel (PSP) are at risk of experiencing operational stress injuries (OSIs). The functional impairments caused by OSIs can contribute to challenges with returning to pre-injury operational requirements. A Canadian municipal policing agency developed a peer-led workplace reintegration program (RP) to assist PSP in their workplace reintegration after an illness or injury. Although this RP has been used internationally, there is a paucity of research on this program and its implementation by PSP organizations. The perspectives of key stakeholders are important for capturing the current state of RPs and future directions for the advocacy, implementation, sustainability, and spread of the RP, and to set the stage for future research. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences and perspectives of key stakeholders engaged in the creation, implementation, facilitation, and execution of RPs in Alberta, Canada. This will help identify strengths, barriers, facilitators, needs, processes, and attitudes associated with the RPs and direction for future research. A qualitative thematic analysis of focus groups (N=8) involving key stakeholders (N=30) from five PSP organizations with RPs was conducted using a community-engaged research approach as part of a larger mixed-methods study. Four key themes emerged from the participants: (1) Integral elements of success, (2) Integral needs, (3) Key areas of growth, and (4) Evolution of the Program. While RPs are highly regarded by the key stakeholders, it is essential that evidence-based research guide the evaluation, modification, implementation, spread, and scale of RPs globally.
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    “Collapsing into darkness”: an exploratory qualitative thematic analysis of the experience of workplace reintegration among nurses with operational stress injuries
    (2023) Jones, Chelsea; Juby, Brenda; Spencer, Shaylee; Smith-MacDonald, Lorraine; O’Greysik, Elly; Vincent, Michelle; Mooney, Colleen; Bright, Katherine S.
    Background: Nurses are engaged in an unpredictable and dynamic work environment where they are exposed to events that may cause or contribute to physical and/or psychological injuries. Operational stress injury (OSI) may lead to an extended time away from work or nurses leaving the profession altogether. A deliberate focus on the workplace reintegration phase of the mental health recovery process may lead to the increased retention of nurses in their profession. Prior to the creation and implementation of potential solutions to address workplace reintegration, it is imperative to explore the experiences and perceptions of nurses affected by OSI. This qualitative study aims to investigate the experiences and perceptions of nurses (N = 7) employed within a Canadian provincial healthcare system who have attempted workplace reintegration after being off of work with an OSI. Methods: Nurses were recruited via social media, unit emails, and word of mouth. Data were collected through recorded semi-structured interviews conducted over videoconferencing. Once transcribed, the data were thematically analyzed using an inductive approach. Results: The resulting themes included (1) heroes to zeros, (2) changing the status quo, (3) connection is key, and (4) post-traumatic growth: advocacy and altruism. Study participants indicated both that nursing culture and a cumulation of events contributed to a need for a leave of absence from work and that a formalized process was desired by nurses to assist in returning to work. Conclusions: The development, implementation, and exploration of innovative policies, procedures, and initiatives to bridge the gap from clinical interventions to workplace reintegration are needed for nurses experiencing OSI. Further research is also needed regarding mental health impacts and appropriate resources to support nurses in their workplace reintegration process after experiencing psychological and/or physical injury.
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    How do we keep our heads above water? An embedded mixed-methods study exploring implementation of a workplace reintegration program for nurses affected by operational stress injury
    (2023) Jones, Chelsea; O’Greysik, Elly; Juby, Brenda; Spencer, Shaylee; Vincent, Michelle; Smith-MacDonald, Lorraine; Mooney, Colleen; Brémault-Phillips, Suzette
    Background: Nurses are exposed to potentially psychologically traumatic events which can lead to operational stress injuries (OSI). Workplace reintegration after an OSI can be challenging, especially with repeated exposure to potentially traumatic scenarios and workplace demands. A workplace reintegration program (RP) originally developed for police officers may be of benefit for nurses returning to work after an OSI. The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceived need for an RP for nurses, and its potential contextualization and implementation in the nursing context using an implementation science approach. Methods: This mixed-methods study collected data via questionnaires and focus groups from acute care nurses in Canada (N = 19). Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics, thematic analysis, and an organizational readiness assessment. Results: Study participants indicated that formalized processes were rarely used to support nurses returning to work after time off due to mental health challenges. Themes included (1) “The Perfect Storm”: the current state of return-to-work, (2) Integral Needs, and (3) A Break in the Clouds: hope for health. Conclusions: Exploration of innovative programs such as the RP may provide additional support to nurses affected by OSIs. Further research is needed regarding workplace reintegration for nurses, and contextualization and evaluation of the RP.
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    How can we keep our patients safe? Managing cyber-threats post-pandemic
    (2023) Neumeier, Melanie
    The COVID-19 pandemic has created unprecedented challenges for the healthcare industry worldwide, including an increase in cyberattacks. Canadian hospitals have been particularly hard hit by ransomware attacks, which have surged during the pandemic. Ransomware attacks can have serious consequences, including the disruption of patient care and compromise of sensitive patient data. There have been several recent ransomware attacks on Canadian hospitals that highlight the seriousness of this threat. Attacks on the University of Ottawa Heart Institute and the Newfoundland and Labrador health system in 2021,Toronto Sick Kids Hospital in December 2022, and Ross Memorial Hospital in February 2023are just some examples of recent cyberattacks on healthcare targets (CBC News, 2021; Mosleh, 2023; Solomon, 2022). And while LockBit apologized for the attack on Toronto SickKids Hospital in December (Mosleh, 2023), the increase in frequency and scope of ransomware attacks on our healthcare system is a national concern. The Communications Security Establishment, the federal government’s IT security agency, has noted that ransomware and other malware attacks are not only becoming more frequent, but are also becoming more sophisticated, and hospitals have some unique factors that make them vulnerable and attractive for cyber criminals (CBC News, 2021).
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    Personal health information at your fingertips: the growing pains and possibilities of a patient portal
    (2022) Neumeier, Melanie
    Healthcare technologies are constantly evolving to facilitate more efficient, effective, and appropriate patient-centered care, and an upcoming integration to EHRs will help make healthcare more inclusive for transgender and gender diverse people.
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    Personal health information at your fingertips: The growing pains and possibilities of a patient portal
    (2022) Neumeier, Melanie
    After running into some health problems over the last few years I have had ample experience with the benefits, and frustrations, of accessing a patient portal. Digital mobile access to my personal health information is something I felt was long overdue, so I was excited to finally have access to the information I needed when I needed it so that I could bean active participant in my own care. I had great expectations for the patient portal system, and as with all great expectations it was difficult for reality to deliver.
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    Gifted and talented students' career aspirations and influences: A systematic review of the literature
    (2009) Miller, Kathleen; Cummings, Greta
    The nursing shortage of registered nurses in Canada is expected to worsen, making recruitment a concern for nursing organizations. Also, many reports have outlined the need for improved leadership in nursing. Therefore, the study purpose was to describe the findings of a systematic review of studies examining the career influences and aspirations of gifted high school students and to make recommendations for further research. Results indicate gifted students choose careers that fit their personal self-concept and their perceptions of traits needed to succeed in a profession. Family members, particularly mothers, had the greatest influence on career decision making and these students were more likely to indicate a desire for a profession with high prestige, high levels of education and higher pay. These students were not likely to indicate nursing as a career choice. Efforts to improve the image of nursing with this group of students are needed.
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    Emotions experienced by instructors delivering written feedback and dialogic feed-forward
    (2023) Hill, Jennifer; Berlin, Kathy; Choate, Julia; Cravens-Brown, Lisa; McKendrick-Calder, Lisa; Smith, Susan
    Understanding the emotions experienced by higher education instructors related to assessment feedback, how instructors understand student emotions, and how instructors might manage these emotions positively, can help to secure the educational benefits of feedback. In this research, we aimed to explore the emotional responses that instructors experienced through the giving and receiving of assessment feedback. We undertook qualitative data collection, carrying out individual semi-structured interviews with instructors from three universities who had administered a dialogic feed-forward intervention on one of their teaching units. The full interview transcripts were analysed inductively using thematic analysis. Five main themes emerged from the interview data: 1. Summative written feedback aroused largely negative emotions in instructors because they felt distanced from their students; 2. Instructors experienced a broad range of emotions related to dialogic feed-forward encounters, emerging from their proximity to students; 3. Dialogic feed-forward, as an affective encounter, was emotionally challenging for instructors; 4. Dialogic feed-forward built strong learning relationships between students and instructors, strengthening students’ sense of belonging; 5. Dialogic feed-forward was transformational for instructors as educators. We consider the implications of our findings for instructors and wider assessment and feedback practices, including emotional labour, promotional reward, and instructor professional development.
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    Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Black communities in Canada
    (2023) Kemei, Janet; Tulli, Mia; Olanlesi-Aliu, Adedoyin; Tunde-Byass, Modupe; Salami, Bukola
    The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in differential impacts on the Black communities in Canada and has unmasked existing race-related health inequities. The purpose of this study was to illuminate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on Black people in Canada. Historically, social inequalities have determined the impacts of pandemics on the population, and in the case of the COVID-19 pandemic, disproportionate infections and mortalities have become evident among racialized communities in Canada. This qualitative descriptive study utilized an intersectionality framework. We invited Black stakeholders across Canada to participate in semi-structured interviews to deepen our knowledge of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on Black communities in Canada. A total of 30 interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis. Our findings fell into three categories: (1) increased vulnerability to COVID-19 disease, (2) mental impacts, and (3) addressing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings show the underlying systemic inequities in Canada and systemic racism exacerbated health inequities among the Black communities and undermined interventions by public health agencies to curb the spread of COVID-19 and associated impacts on Black and other racialized communities. The paper concludes by identifying critical areas for future intervention in policy and practice.
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    A scoping review of COVID-19 online mis/disinformation in Black communities
    (2022) Kemei, Janet; Alaazi, Dominic A.; Tulli, Mia; Kennedy, Megan; Tunde-Byass, Modupe; Bailey, Paul; Sekyi-Otu, Ato; Murdoch, Sharon; Mohamud, Habiba; Lehman, Jeanne; Salami, Bukola
    We searched and reviewed articles from major databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL. Our search strategy involved the following concepts: 1) COVID-19, including variants; 2) misinformation, conspiracy theories, and fake news, and modes of misinformation transmission such as social media; and 3) Blacks or people of African descent, or the African diaspora. We retrieved 600 articles that were independently screened by two researchers. We included studies focusing on 1) Black people living inside or outside Africa; and 2) COVID-19 online dis/misinformation among this population. A total of 19 studies fit our inclusion criteria. We used a thematic analysis to analyse qualitative data.
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    Understanding the health and well-being of Canadian Black children and youth during the COVID-19 pandemic: a review
    (2022) Kemei, Janet; Salami, Bukola
    The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated health inequities and vulnerabilities in our society, with the Black population being disproportionately affected. As previous pandemics have resulted in an increase in adverse events to children and youth, we reviewed the literature to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Black children and youth. We found Black children and youth experience psychosocial stressors related to uncertainties of the future. Differential gender effects related to COVID-19 are also apparent. Physical distancing related to the COVID-19 pandemic which resulted in differential impacts on physical activity levels in children. We also noted, increase levels of isolation may result in undetected child abuse. The review highlights the urgent need for multifaceted interventions that address disparities in social determinants of health and psychosocial needs of Black children and youth in Canada. Future research that addresses the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on Black children and youth is needed to help create context-specific interventions.